Project Management Professional

What is a Project ?

Project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.

    Projects are unique.

    Projects are temporary in nature and have a definite beginning and ending date.

    Projects are completed when the project goals are achieved or it.s determined the project is no longer viable.

    A successful project is one that meets or exceeds the expectations of your stakeholders.

How Unique ?

    Product characteristics are progressively elaborated.

    The product or service is different in some way from other product or services.

How Temporary ?

    Has a definite beginning and end and not an ongoing effort.

    Ceases when objective has been attained.

    Team is disbanded upon project completion.

Example

Building a road is an example of a project. The process of building a road takes a finite amount of time, and produces a unique product.

Operations on the other hand are repetitive. Generating bills every month, and broadcasting news everyday are examples of operations.

Subprojects are components of a project that often contracted out.
What is Project Management?

Project Management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.

Project management is accomplished through the use of the processes such as:

    Initiation
    Planning
    Execution
    Controlling
    Closing

Project managers or the organization can divide projects into above phases to provide better management control with appropriate links to the ongoing operations of the performing organization. Collectively, these phases are known as the project life cycle which we would see in next chapter.

Project managers deliver projects while balancing the following constraints:

    Scope

    Schedule

    Quality

    Resources

    Customer Satisfaction

    Risk

These all are so intertwined that a change in one will most often cause a change in at least one of the others

For example:

    If time is extended, the cost of the project will increase.

    If time extended with the same cost then quality of the product will reduce.

    If scope is extended then cost and time will also extend.

Changes to any of these legs sets off a series of activities that are needed to integrate the change across the project.
What is Program Management ?

A program consists of a related group of projects and Program management is the process of managing multiple on going projects. An example would be that of designing, manufacturing and providing support infrastructure for an automobile make.

Program management involves centrally managing and coordinating groups of related projects to meet the objectives of the program.

In some cases Project Management is a subset of Program Management. The project manager may report to the program manager in such cases. A portfolio consists of multiple programs.
What is Portfolio Management ?

A portfolio is a collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives.Organizations manage their portfolios based on specific goals.

Senior managers or senior management teams typically take on the responsibility of portfolio management for an organization.

Portfolio management encompasses managing the collections of programs and projects in the portfolio. This includes weighing the value of each project, or potential project, against the portfolio's strategic objectives.

Portfolio management also concerns monitoring active projects for adherence to objectives, balancing the portfolio among the other investments of the organization, and assuring the efficient use of resources.
Why do we need Project Management?

    Exponential expansion of human knowledge
    Global demand for goods and services
    Global competition
    Team is required to meet the demand with quality and standard.
    Improved control over the project
    Improved performance
    Improved budget and quality

Project Management Skills:

Many of the tools and techniques for managing projects are specific to project management. However, effective project management requires that the project management team acquire the following three dimensions of project management competencies:

    Project Management Knowledge Competency: This refers to what the project management team knows about project management.

    Project Management Performance Competency: This refers to what the project management team is able to do or accomplish while applying their project management knowledge.

    Personal Competency: This refers to how the project management team behaves when performing the project or activity.

Interpersonal Skills Management:

The management of interpersonal relationships includes:

    Effective communication: The exchange of information

    Influencing the organization: The ability to "get things done"

    Leadership: Developing a vision and strategy, and motivating people to achieve that vision and strategy

    Motivation: Energizing people to achieve high levels of performance and to overcome barriers to change

    Negotiation and conflict management: Conferring with others to come to terms with them or to reach an agreement

    Decision Making: Ability to take decision independently.

    Political and cultural awareness: Important to handle various personal and professional issues.

    Team Building: Ability to create a productive team.

What is PMBOK ® Guide?

PMBOK ® Guide is the bible for Project Management. It stands for Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK ® Guide) . There are nine knowledge areas defined in PMBOK ® Guide, which are as follows

    Project Integration Management
    Project Scope Management
    Project Cost Management
    Project Time Management
    Project Risk Management
    Project Quality Management
    Project HR Management
    Project Communication Management
    Project Procurement Management

Each Knowledge area has further Processes. There are a total of 42 processes. Each process has following three important parts.

    Inputs
    Tools & Techniques
    Outputs

The PMBOK primarily covers each of the processes and its inputs, outputs and related tools and techniques.

Subsequent chapters will explain each process, its inputs, tools and techniques and outputs (ITTO) required.

Further the discipline of Project Management has five process groups.

These are:

    Initiation
    Planning
    Execution
    Control
    Closure

Each process is part of one of these five project phases. It is important to know the process group for each of the 42 processes.



According to Wikipedia

Project management

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Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, motivating, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals. A project is a temporary endeavor with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often constrained by funding or deliverables),[1] undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives,[2] typically to bring about beneficial change or added value. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with business as usual (or operations),[3] which are repetitive, permanent, or semi-permanent functional activities to produce products or services. In practice, the management of these two systems is often quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and management strategies.

The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals[4] and objectives while honoring the preconceived constraints.[5] The primary constraints are scope, time, quality and budget.[6] The secondary —and more ambitious— challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs and integrate them to meet pre-defined objectives.

Contents

    1 History
    2 Approaches
        2.1 The traditional approach
        2.2 PRINCE2
        2.3 PRiSM (Projects integrating Sustainable Methods)
        2.4 Critical chain project management
        2.5 Event chain methodology
        2.6 Process-based management
        2.7 Agile project management
        2.8 Lean project management
        2.9 Extreme project management
        2.10 Benefits realisation management
    3 Processes
        3.1 Initiating
        3.2 Planning and design
        3.3 Executing
        3.4 Monitoring and controlling
        3.5 Closing
        3.6 Project controlling and project control systems
    4 Topics
        4.1 Project managers
        4.2 Project management triangle
        4.3 Work breakdown structure
        4.4 Project management framework
        4.5 International standards
        4.6 Project portfolio management
        4.7 Project management software
    5 See also
    6 References
    7 External links


History

Roman soldiers building a fortress, Trajan's Column 113 AD

Until 1900 civil engineering projects were generally managed by creative architects, engineers, and master builders themselves, for example Vitruvius (first century BC), Christopher Wren (1632–1723), Thomas Telford (1757–1834) and Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806–1859).[7] It was in the 1950s that organizations started to systematically apply project management tools and techniques to complex engineering projects.[8]

Henry Gantt (1861–1919), the father of planning and control techniques

As a discipline, project management developed from several fields of application including civil construction, engineering, and heavy defense activity.[9] Two forefathers of project management are Henry Gantt, called the father of planning and control techniques,[10] who is famous for his use of the Gantt chart as a project management tool (alternatively Harmonogram first proposed by Karol Adamiecki[11]); and Henri Fayol for his creation of the five management functions that form the foundation of the body of knowledge associated with project and program management.[12] Both Gantt and Fayol were students of Frederick Winslow Taylor's theories of scientific management. His work is the forerunner to modern project management tools including work breakdown structure (WBS) and resource allocation.

The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern project management era where core engineering fields come together to work as one. Project management became recognized as a distinct discipline arising from the management discipline with engineering model.[13] In the United States, prior to the 1950s, projects were managed on an ad-hoc basis, using mostly Gantt charts and informal techniques and tools. At that time, two mathematical project-scheduling models were developed. The "Critical Path Method" (CPM) was developed as a joint venture between DuPont Corporation and Remington Rand Corporation for managing plant maintenance projects. And the "Program Evaluation and Review Technique" or PERT, was developed by Booz Allen Hamilton as part of the United States Navy's (in conjunction with the Lockheed Corporation) Polaris missile submarine program;[14] These mathematical techniques quickly spread into many private enterprises.

PERT network chart for a seven-month project with five milestones

At the same time, as project-scheduling models were being developed, technology for project cost estimating, cost management, and engineering economics was evolving, with pioneering work by Hans Lang and others. In 1956, the American Association of Cost Engineers (now AACE International; the Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering) was formed by early practitioners of project management and the associated specialties of planning and scheduling, cost estimating, and cost/schedule control (project control). AACE continued its pioneering work and in 2006 released the first integrated process for portfolio, program and project management (Total Cost Management Framework).

The International Project Management Association (IPMA) was founded in Europe in 1967,[15] as a federation of several national project management associations. IPMA maintains its federal structure today and now includes member associations on every continent except Antarctica. IPMA offers a Four Level Certification program based on the IPMA Competence Baseline (ICB).[16] The ICB covers technical, contextual, and behavioral competencies.

In 1969, the Project Management Institute (PMI) was formed in the USA.[17] PMI publishes A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), which describes project management practices that are common to "most projects, most of the time." PMI also offers multiple certifications.

Approaches

There are a number of approaches to managing project activities including lean, iterative, incremental, and phased approaches.

Regardless of the methodology employed, careful consideration must be given to the overall project objectives, timeline, and cost, as well as the roles and responsibilities of all participants and stakeholders.

The traditional approach

A traditional phased approach identifies a sequence of steps to be completed. In the "traditional approach",[18] five developmental components of a project can be distinguished (four stages plus control):

Typical development phases of an engineering project

    initiation
    planning and design
    execution and construction
    monitoring and controlling systems
    completion

Not all projects will have every stage, as projects can be terminated before they reach completion. Some projects do not follow a structured planning and/or monitoring process. And some projects will go through steps 2, 3 and 4 multiple times.

Many industries use variations of these project stages. For example, when working on a brick-and-mortar design and construction, projects will typically progress through stages like pre-planning, conceptual design, schematic design, design development, construction drawings (or contract documents), and construction administration. In software development, this approach is often known as the waterfall model,[19] i.e., one series of tasks after another in linear sequence. In software development many organizations have adapted the Rational Unified Process (RUP) to fit this methodology, although RUP does not require or explicitly recommend this practice. Waterfall development works well for small, well defined projects, but often fails in larger projects of undefined and ambiguous nature. The Cone of Uncertainty explains some of this as the planning made on the initial phase of the project suffers from a high degree of uncertainty. This becomes especially true as software development is often the realization of a new or novel product. In projects where requirements have not been finalized and can change, requirements management is used to develop an accurate and complete definition of the behavior of software that can serve as the basis for software development.[20] While the terms may differ from industry to industry, the actual stages typically follow common steps to problem solving—"defining the problem, weighing options, choosing a path, implementation and evaluation."

PRINCE2

Main article: PRINCE2

The PRINCE2 process model

PRINCE2 is a structured approach to project management, released in 1996 as a generic project management method.[21] It combined the original PROMPT methodology (which evolved into the PRINCE methodology) with IBM's MITP (managing the implementation of the total project) methodology. PRINCE2 provides a method for managing projects within a clearly defined framework. PRINCE2 describes procedures to coordinate people and activities in a project, how to design and supervise the project, and what to do if the project has to be adjusted if it does not develop as planned.

In the method, each process is specified with its key inputs and outputs and with specific goals and activities to be carried out. This allows for automatic control of any deviations from the plan. Divided into manageable stages, the method enables an efficient control of resources. On the basis of close monitoring, the project can be carried out in a controlled and organized way.

PRINCE2 provides a common language for all participants in the project. The various management roles and responsibilities involved in a project are fully described and are adaptable to suit the complexity of the project and skills of the organization.

PRiSM (Projects integrating Sustainable Methods)

PRiSM[22] is a process-based, structured project management methodology that introduces areas of sustainability and integrates them into four core project phases in order to maximize opportunities to improve sustainability and the use of finite resources.

The PRiSM Flowchart

The methodology encompasses the management, control and organization of a project with consideration and emphasis beyond the project life-cycle and on the five aspects of sustainability, People, Planet, Profit, Process and Product. It derives the framework from ISO:21500 as well as ISO 14001, ISO 26000, and ISO 9001 PRiSM is also used to refer to the training and accreditation of authorized practitioners of the methodology who must undertake accredited qualifications based on competency to obtain the GPM certification.[23]

Critical chain project management

Main article: Critical chain project management

Critical chain project management (CCPM) is a method of planning and managing project execution designed to deal with uncertainties inherent in managing projects, while taking into consideration limited availability of resources (physical, human skills, as well as management & support capacity) needed to execute projects.

CCPM is an application of the theory of constraints (TOC) to projects. The goal is to increase the flow of projects in an organization (throughput). Applying the first three of the five focusing steps of TOC, the system constraint for all projects is identified as are the resources. To exploit the constraint, tasks on the critical chain are given priority over all other activities. Finally, projects are planned and managed to ensure that the resources are ready when the critical chain tasks must start, subordinating all other resources to the critical chain.

The project plan should typically undergo resource leveling, and the longest sequence of resource-constrained tasks should be identified as the critical chain. In some cases, such as managing contracted sub-projects, it is advisable to use a simplified approach without resource leveling.

In multi-project environments, resource leveling should be performed across projects. However, it is often enough to identify (or simply select) a single "drum". The drum can be a resource that acts as a constraint across projects, which are staggered based on the availability of that single resource.

One can also use a "virtual drum" by selecting a task or group of tasks (typically integration points) and limiting the number of projects in execution at that stage.

Event chain methodology

Main article: Event chain methodology

Event chain methodology is another method that complements critical path method and critical chain project management methodologies.

Event chain methodology is an uncertainty modeling and schedule network analysis technique that is focused on identifying and managing events and event chains that affect project schedules. Event chain methodology helps to mitigate the negative impact of psychological heuristics and biases, as well as to allow for easy modeling of uncertainties in the project schedules. Event chain methodology is based on the following principles.

    Probabilistic moment of risk: An activity (task) in most real-life processes is not a continuous uniform process. Tasks are affected by external events, which can occur at some point in the middle of the task.
    Event chains: Events can cause other events, which will create event chains. These event chains can significantly affect the course of the project. Quantitative analysis is used to determine a cumulative effect of these event chains on the project schedule.
    Critical events or event chains: The single events or the event chains that have the most potential to affect the projects are the “critical events” or “critical chains of events.” They can be determined by the analysis.
    Project tracking with events: Even if a project is partially completed and data about the project duration, cost, and events occurred is available, it is still possible to refine information about future potential events and helps to forecast future project performance.
    Event chain visualization: Events and event chains can be visualized using event chain diagrams on a Gantt chart.

Process-based management

Main article: Process-based management

Also furthering the concept of project control is the incorporation of process-based management. This area has been driven by the use of Maturity models such as the CMMI (capability maturity model integration; see this example of a predecessor) and ISO/IEC15504 (SPICE – software process improvement and capability estimation).

Agile project management

Main article: Agile Project Management

The iteration cycle in agile project management

Agile project management approaches based on the principles of human interaction management are founded on a process view of human collaboration. It is "most typically used in software, website, technology, creative and marketing industries."[24] This contrasts sharply with the traditional approach. In the agile software development or flexible product development approach, the project is seen as a series of relatively small tasks conceived and executed as the situation demands in an adaptive manner, rather than as a completely pre-planned process. It is the most consistent project management technique since it involves frequent testing of the project under development. It is the only technique in which the client will be actively involved in the project development. But the only disadvantage with this technique is that it should be used only if the client has enough time to be actively involved in the project every now and then.

Lean project management

Main article: Lean project management

Lean project management uses principles from lean manufacturing to focus on delivering value with less waste and reduced time.

Extreme project management

Main article: Extreme project management

Planning and feedback loops in Extreme programming (XP) with the time frames of the multiple loops.

In critical studies of project management it has been noted that several PERT based models are not well suited for the multi-project company environment of today.[citation needed] Most of them are aimed at very large-scale, one-time, non-routine projects, and currently all kinds of management are expressed in terms of projects.

Using complex models for "projects" (or rather "tasks") spanning a few weeks has been proven to cause unnecessary costs and low maneuverability in several cases[citation needed]. Instead, project management experts try to identify different "lightweight" models, such as Extreme Programming and Scrum.

The generalization of Extreme Programming to other kinds of projects is extreme project management, which may be used in combination with the process modeling and management principles of human interaction management.

Benefits realisation management

Main article: Benefits realisation management

Benefits realization management (BRM) enhances normal project management techniques through a focus on agreeing what outcomes should change (the benefits) during the project, and then measuring to see if that is happening to help keep a project on track. This can help to reduce the risk of a completed project being a failure as instead of attempting to deliver agreed requirements the aim is to deliver the benefit of those requirements.

An example of delivering a project to requirements could be agreeing on a project to deliver a computer system to process staff data with the requirement to manage payroll, holiday and staff personnel records. Under BRM the agreement would be to use the suppliers suggested staff data system to see an agreed reduction in staff hours processing and maintaining staff data (benefit reduce HR headcount).

Processes

The project development stages[25]

Traditionally, project management includes a number of elements: four to five process groups, and a control system. Regardless of the methodology or terminology used, the same basic project management processes will be used. Major process groups generally include:[6]

    Initiation
    Planning or design
    Production or execution
    Monitoring and controlling
    Closing

In project environments with a significant exploratory element (e.g., research and development), these stages may be supplemented with decision points (go/no go decisions) at which the project's continuation is debated and decided. An example is the Phase–gate model.

Initiating

Initiating process group processes[25]

The initiating processes determine the nature and scope of the project.[26] If this stage is not performed well, it is unlikely that the project will be successful in meeting the business’ needs. The key project controls needed here are an understanding of the business environment and making sure that all necessary controls are incorporated into the project. Any deficiencies should be reported and a recommendation should be made to fix them.

The initiating stage should include a plan that encompasses the following areas:

    analyzing the business needs/requirements in measurable goals
    reviewing of the current operations
    financial analysis of the costs and benefits including a budget
    stakeholder analysis, including users, and support personnel for the project
    project charter including costs, tasks, deliverables, and schedule

Planning and design

After the initiation stage, the project is planned to an appropriate level of detail (see example of a flow-chart).[25] The main purpose is to plan time, cost and resources adequately to estimate the work needed and to effectively manage risk during project execution. As with the Initiation process group, a failure to adequately plan greatly reduces the project's chances of successfully accomplishing its goals.

Project planning generally consists of[27]

    determining how to plan (e.g. by level of detail or rolling wave);
    developing the scope statement;
    selecting the planning team;
    identifying deliverables and creating the work breakdown structure;
    identifying the activities needed to complete those deliverables and networking the activities in their logical sequence;
    estimating the resource requirements for the activities;
    estimating time and cost for activities;
    developing the schedule;
    developing the budget;
    risk planning;
    gaining formal approval to begin work.

Additional processes, such as planning for communications and for scope management, identifying roles and responsibilities, determining what to purchase for the project and holding a kick-off meeting are also generally advisable.

For new product development projects, conceptual design of the operation of the final product may be performed concurrent with the project planning activities, and may help to inform the planning team when identifying deliverables and planning activities.

Executing

Executing process group processes[25]

Executing consists of the processes used to complete the work defined in the project plan to accomplish the project's requirements. Execution process involves coordinating people and resources, as well as integrating and performing the activities of the project in accordance with the project management plan. The deliverables are produced as outputs from the processes performed as defined in the project management plan and other frameworks that might be applicable to the type of project at hand.

Execution process group include:

    Direct and manage project execution
    Quality assurance of deliverables
    Acquire, develop and manage Project team
    Distribute information
    Manage stakeholder expectations
    Conduct procurement

Monitoring and controlling

Monitoring and controlling process group processes[25]

Monitoring and controlling consists of those processes performed to observe project execution so that potential problems can be identified in a timely manner and corrective action can be taken, when necessary, to control the execution of the project. The key benefit is that project performance is observed and measured regularly to identify variances from the project management plan.

Monitoring and controlling includes:[28]

    Measuring the ongoing project activities ('where we are');
    Monitoring the project variables (cost, effort, scope, etc.) against the project management plan and the project performance baseline (where we should be);
    Identify corrective actions to address issues and risks properly (How can we get on track again);
    Influencing the factors that could circumvent integrated change control so only approved changes are implemented.

In multi-phase projects, the monitoring and control process also provides feedback between project phases, in order to implement corrective or preventive actions to bring the project into compliance with the project management plan.

Project maintenance is an ongoing process, and it includes:[6]

    Continuing support of end-users
    Correction of errors
    Updates of the software over time

Monitoring and controlling cycle

In this stage, auditors should pay attention to how effectively and quickly user problems are resolved.

Over the course of any construction project, the work scope may change. Change is a normal and expected part of the construction process. Changes can be the result of necessary design modifications, differing site conditions, material availability, contractor-requested changes, value engineering and impacts from third parties, to name a few. Beyond executing the change in the field, the change normally needs to be documented to show what was actually constructed. This is referred to as change management. Hence, the owner usually requires a final record to show all changes or, more specifically, any change that modifies the tangible portions of the finished work. The record is made on the contract documents – usually, but not necessarily limited to, the design drawings. The end product of this effort is what the industry terms as-built drawings, or more simply, “as built.” The requirement for providing them is a norm in construction contracts.

When changes are introduced to the project, the viability of the project has to be re-assessed. It is important not to lose sight of the initial goals and targets of the projects. When the changes accumulate, the forecasted result may not justify the original proposed investment in the project.

Closing

Closing process group processes.[25]

Closing includes the formal acceptance of the project and the ending thereof. Administrative activities include the archiving of the files and documenting lessons learned.

This phase consists of:[6]

    Project close: Finalize all activities across all of the process groups to formally close the project or a project phase
    Contract closure: Complete and settle each contract (including the resolution of any open items) and close each contract applicable to the project or project phase.

Project controlling and project control systems

Project controlling should be established as an independent function in project management. It implements verification and controlling function during the processing of a project in order to reinforce the defined performance and formal goals.[29] The tasks of project controlling are also:

    the creation of infrastructure for the supply of the right information and its update
    the establishment of a way to communicate disparities of project parameters
    the development of project information technology based on an intranet or the determination of a project key performance index system (KPI)
    divergence analyses and generation of proposals for potential project regulations[30]
    the establishment of methods to accomplish an appropriate the project structure, project workflow organization, project control and governance
    creation of transparency among the project parameters[31]

Fulfillment and implementation of these tasks can be achieved by applying specific methods and instruments of project controlling. The following methods of project controlling can be applied:

    investment analysis
    cost–benefit analyses
    value benefit Analysis
    expert surveys
    simulation calculations
    risk-profile analyses
    surcharge calculations
    milestone trend analysis
    cost trend analysis
    target/actual-comparison[32]

Project control is that element of a project that keeps it on-track, on-time and within budget.[28] Project control begins early in the project with planning and ends late in the project with post-implementation review, having a thorough involvement of each step in the process. Each project should be assessed for the appropriate level of control needed: too much control is too time consuming, too little control is very risky. If project control is not implemented correctly, the cost to the business should be clarified in terms of errors, fixes, and additional audit fees.

Control systems are needed for cost, risk, quality, communication, time, change, procurement, and human resources. In addition, auditors should consider how important the projects are to the financial statements, how reliant the stakeholders are on controls, and how many controls exist. Auditors should review the development process and procedures for how they are implemented. The process of development and the quality of the final product may also be assessed if needed or requested. A business may want the auditing firm to be involved throughout the process to catch problems earlier on so that they can be fixed more easily. An auditor can serve as a controls consultant as part of the development team or as an independent auditor as part of an audit.

Businesses sometimes use formal systems development processes. These help assure that systems are developed successfully. A formal process is more effective in creating strong controls, and auditors should review this process to confirm that it is well designed and is followed in practice. A good formal systems development plan outlines:

    A strategy to align development with the organization’s broader objectives
    Standards for new systems
    Project management policies for timing and budgeting
    Procedures describing the process
    Evaluation of quality of change

Topics

Project managers

A project manager is a professional in the field of project management. Project managers can have the responsibility of the planning, execution, and closing of any project, typically relating to construction industry, engineering, architecture, computing, and telecommunications. Many other fields in production engineering and design engineering and heavy industrial have project managers.

A project manager is the person accountable for accomplishing the stated project objectives. Key project management responsibilities include creating clear and attainable project objectives, building the project requirements, and managing the triple constraint for projects, which is cost, time, and scope.

A project manager is often a client representative and has to determine and implement the exact needs of the client, based on knowledge of the firm they are representing. The ability to adapt to the various internal procedures of the contracting party, and to form close links with the nominated representatives, is essential in ensuring that the key issues of cost, time, quality and above all, client satisfaction, can be realized.

Project management triangle

The project management triangle

Like any human undertaking, projects need to be performed and delivered under certain constraints. Traditionally, these constraints have been listed as "scope," "time," and "cost".[1] These are also referred to as the "project management triangle", where each side represents a constraint. One side of the triangle cannot be changed without affecting the others. A further refinement of the constraints separates product "quality" or "performance" from scope, and turns quality into a fourth constraint.

The time constraint refers to the amount of time available to complete a project. The cost constraint refers to the budgeted amount available for the project. The scope constraint refers to what must be done to produce the project's end result. These three constraints are often competing constraints: increased scope typically means increased time and increased cost, a tight time constraint could mean increased costs and reduced scope, and a tight budget could mean increased time and reduced scope.

The discipline of project management is about providing the tools and techniques that enable the project team (not just the project manager) to organize their work to meet these constraints.

Work breakdown structure

The work breakdown structure (WBS) is a tree structure that shows a subdivision of effort required to achieve an objective—for example a program, project, and contract. The WBS may be hardware-, product-, service-, or process-oriented (see an example in a NASA reporting structure (2001)).[33]

A WBS can be developed by starting with the end objective and successively subdividing it into manageable components in terms of size, duration, and responsibility (e.g., systems, subsystems, components, tasks, sub-tasks, and work packages), which include all steps necessary to achieve the objective.[20]

The work breakdown structure provides a common framework for the natural development of the overall planning and control of a contract and is the basis for dividing work into definable increments from which the statement of work can be developed and technical, schedule, cost, and labor hour reporting can be established.[33]

Project management framework

The program (investment) life cycle integrates the project management and system development life cycles with the activities directly associated with system deployment and operation. By design, system operation management and related activities occur after the project is complete and are not documented within this guide[25] (see an example of an IT project management framework).

For example, see figure, in the US United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) the program management life cycle is depicted and describe in the overall VA IT Project Management Framework to address the integration of OMB Exhibit 300 project (investment) management activities and the overall project budgeting process. The VA IT Project Management Framework diagram illustrates Milestone 4 which occurs following the deployment of a system and the closing of the project. The project closing phase activities at the VA continues through system deployment and into system operation for the purpose of illustrating and describing the system activities the VA considers part of the project. The figure illustrates the actions and associated artifacts of the VA IT Project and Program Management process.[25]

International standards

There have been several attempts to develop project management standards, such as:

    Capability Maturity Model from the Software Engineering Institute.
    GAPPS, Global Alliance for Project Performance Standards – an open source standard describing COMPETENCIES for project and program managers.
    A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge from the Project Management Institute (PMI)
    HERMES method, Swiss general project management method, selected for use in Luxembourg and international organizations.
    The ISO standards ISO 90000, a family of standards for quality management systems, and the ISO 10006:2003, for Quality management systems and guidelines for quality management in projects.
    PRINCE2, PRojects IN Controlled Environments.
    Association for Project Management Body of Knowledge[34]
    Team Software Process (TSP) from the Software Engineering Institute.
    Total Cost Management Framework, AACE International's Methodology for Integrated Portfolio, Program and Project Management.
    V-Model, an original systems development method.
    The Logical framework approach, which is popular in international development organizations.
    IAPPM, The International Association of Project & Program Management, guide to project auditing and rescuing troubled projects.

Project portfolio management

An increasing number of organizations are using, what is referred to as, project portfolio management (PPM) as a means of selecting the right projects and then using project management techniques[35] as the means for delivering the outcomes in the form of benefits to the performing private or not-for-profit organization.

Project management software

Main article: Project management software

Project management software has a capacity to help plan, organize, and manage resource pools and develop resource estimates. Depending the sophistication of the software, resource including estimation and planning, scheduling, cost control and budget management, resource allocation, collaboration software, communication, decision-making, quality management and documentation or administration systems.[36] Today, numerous PC-based project management software packages exist, and they are finding their way into almost every type of business. Software may range from the high-end Microsoft Project to a simple spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel.[37]

See also

Lists

    Glossary of project management
    List of project management software
    List of project management topics
    Timeline of project management


Related fields

    Architectural engineering
    Construction management
    Cost engineering
    Facilitation (business)
    Industrial engineering
    Project management software
    Project portfolio management
    Project workforce management
    Software project management
    Systems engineering


Related subjects

    Earned value management
    Human factors
    Process architecture
    Project accounting
    Project governance
    Program management
    Project management simulation
    Small-scale project management
    Software development process
    Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)


References

1.      ^ a b Chatfield, Carl. "A short course in project management". Microsoft.

2.      ^ *The Definitive Guide to Project Management. Nokes, Sebastian. 2nd Ed.n. London (Financial Times / Prentice Hall): 2007. ISBN 978-0-273-71097-4

3.      ^ Paul C. Dinsmore et al (2005) The right projects done right! John Wiley and Sons, 2005. ISBN 0-7879-7113-8. p.35 and further.

4.      ^ Lewis R. Ireland (2006) Project Management. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. ISBN 0-07-147160-X. p.110.

5.      ^ Joseph Phillips (2003). PMP Project Management Professional Study Guide. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2003. ISBN 0-07-223062-2 p.354.

6.      ^ a b c d PMI (2010). A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge p.27-35

7.      ^ Dennis Lock (2007) Project Management (9th ed.) Gower Publishing, Ltd., 2007. ISBN 0-566-08772-3

8.      ^ Young-Hoon Kwak (2005). "A brief History of Project Management". In: The story of managing projects. Elias G. Carayannis et al. (9 eds), Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005. ISBN 1-56720-506-2

9.      ^ David I. Cleland, Roland Gareis (2006). Global Project Management Handbook. "Chapter 1: "The evolution of project management". McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. ISBN 0-07-146045-4

10.  ^ Martin Stevens (2002). Project Management Pathways. Association for Project Management. APM Publishing Limited, 2002 ISBN 1-903494-01-X p.xxii

11.  ^ Edward R. Marsh (1975). "The Harmonogram of Karol Adamiecki". In: The Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 18, No. 2 (Jun., 1975), p. 358. (online)

12.  ^ Morgen Witzel (2003). Fifty key figures in management. Routledge, 2003. ISBN 0-415-36977-0. p. 96-101.

13.  ^ David I. Cleland, Roland Gareis (2006). Global Project Management Handbook. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. ISBN 0-07-146045-4. p.1-4 states: "It was in the 1950s when project management was formally recognized as a distinct contribution arising from the management discipline."

14.  ^ Booz Allen Hamilton – History of Booz Allen 1950s

15.  ^ Bjarne Kousholt (2007). Project Management –. Theory and practice.. Nyt Teknisk Forlag. ISBN 87-571-2603-8. p.59.

16.  ^ ipma.ch

17.  ^ F. L. Harrison, Dennis Lock (2004). Advanced project management: a structured approach. Gower Publishing, Ltd., 2004. ISBN 0-566-07822-8. p.34.

18.  ^ Wysocki, Robert K (Robert K). Effective Project Management: Traditional, Adaptive, Extreme.

19.  ^ Winston W. Royce (1970). "Managing the Development of Large Software Systems" in: Technical Papers of Western Electronic Show and Convention (WesCon) August 25–28, 1970, Los Angeles, USA.

20.  ^ a b Stellman, Andrew; Greene, Jennifer (2005). Applied Software Project Management. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 978-0-596-00948-9.

21.  ^ OGC – PRINCE2 – Background

22.  ^ http://greenprojectmanagement.org

23.  ^ http://greenprojectmanagement.org/certification Missing or empty |title= (help)

24.  ^ "What is Agile Project Management?". Planbox.

25.  ^ a b c d e f g h "Project Management Guide". VA Office of Information and Technology. March 3, 2005.

26.  ^ Peter Nathan, Gerald Everett Jones (2003). PMP certification for dummies. p.63.

27.  ^ Harold Kerzner (2003). Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling (8th Ed. ed.). Wiley. ISBN 0-471-22577-0.

28.  ^ a b James P. Lewis (2000). The project manager's desk reference: : a comprehensive guide to project planning, scheduling, evaluation, and systems. p.185

29.  ^ Jörg Becker, Martin Kugeler, Michael Rosemann (2003). Process management: a guide for the design of business processes. ISBN 978-3-540-43499-3. p.27.

30.  ^ Bernhard Schlagheck (2000). Objektorientierte Referenzmodelle für das Prozess- und Projektcontrolling. Grundlagen – Konstruktionen – Anwendungsmöglichkeiten. ISBN 978-3-8244-7162-1. p.131.

31.  ^ Josef E. Riedl (1990). Projekt – Controlling in Forschung und Entwicklung. ISBN 978-3-540-51963-8. p.99.

32.  ^ Steinle, Bruch, Lawa (1995). Projektmanagement. FAZ Verlagsbereich Wirtschaftsbücher. p.136–143

33.  ^ a b NASA NPR 9501.2D. May 23, 2001.

34.  ^ Body of Knowledge 5th edition, Association for Project Management, 2006, ISBN 1-903494-13-3

35.  ^ Albert Hamilton (2004). Handbook of Project Management Procedures. TTL Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 0-7277-3258-7

36.  ^ Janssen, Cory. "Project Management Software". Techopedia. Retrieved 22 May 2013.

37.  ^ Pandey, Priyank (17 May 2013). "Sick of Microsoft Project? Manage Your Project in Excel". Flevy. Retrieved 22 May 2013.


Method123

1. Introduction

1.1 Welcome

Welcome to the Project Management Guidebook. This Guidebook provides a practical approach to what many consider a complex process: the management of projects. This Guidebook is designed to simplify the management processes required to manage a project successfully from end to end. It defines Project Management in simple terms and provides you with all of the documentation tools required to make your project a success.

1.2 What is a Project?

A project is “a unique endeavor to produce a set of deliverables within clearly specified time, cost and quality constraints”.

Projects are different from standard business operational activities as they:

▪ Are unique in nature. They do not involve repetitive processes. Every project undertaken is different from the last, whereas operational activities often involve undertaking repetitive (identical) processes

▪ Have a defined timescale. Projects have a clearly specified start and end date within which the deliverables must be produced to meet a specified customer requirement

▪ Have an approved budget. Projects are allocated a level of financial expenditure within which the deliverables must be produced to meet a specified customer requirement

▪ Have limited resources. At the start of a project an agreed amount of labor, equipment and materials is allocated to the project

▪ Involve an element of risk. Projects entail a level of uncertainty and therefore carry business risk

▪ Achieve beneficial change. The purpose of a project, typically, is to improve an organization through the implementation of business change.

1.3 What is Project Management?

“Project Management is the skills, tools and management processes required to undertake a project successfully”.

Project Management comprises:

▪ A set of skills. Specialist knowledge, skills and experience are required to reduce the level of risk within a project and thereby enhance its likelihood of success

▪ A suite of tools. Various types of tools are used by project managers to improve their chances of success. Examples include document templates, registers, planning software, modeling software, audit checklists and review forms

▪ A series of processes. Various management techniques and processes are required to monitor and control time, cost, quality and scope on projects. Examples include time management, cost management, quality management, change management, risk management and issue management.

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2. Project Lifecycle

The following diagram outlines the Project Life-Cycle.

The Project Lifecycle consists of four phases:

Project Initiation

The Initiation Phase is the first phase in the project. In this phase a business problem (or opportunity) is identified and a business case which provides various solution options is defined. A feasibility study is then conducted to investigate the likelihood of each solution option addressing the business problem and a final recommended solution is put forward. Once the recommended solution is approved, a project is initiated to deliver the approved solution. A ‘Project Charter’ is completed, which outlines the objectives, scope and structure of the new project, and a Project Manager is appointed. The Project Manager begins recruiting a project team and establishes a Project Office environment. Approval is then sought to move into the detailed planning phase.

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Project Planning

Once the scope of the project has been defined in the Project Charter, the project enters the detailed planning phase. This involves the creation of a:

▪ Project Plan (outlining the activities, tasks, dependencies and timeframes)

▪ Resource Plan (listing the labor, equipment and materials required)

▪ Financial Plan (identifying the labor, equipment and materials costs)

▪ Quality Plan (providing quality targets, assurance and control measures)

▪ Risk Plan (highlighting potential risks and actions taken to mitigate them)

▪ Acceptance Plan (listing the criteria to be met to gain customer acceptance)

▪ Communications Plan (listing the information needed to inform stakeholders)

▪ Procurement Plan (identifying products to be sourced from external suppliers).

At this point the project has been planned in detail and is ready to be executed.

Project Execution

This phase involves the execution of each activity and task listed in the Project Plan. While the activities and tasks are being executed, a series of management processes are undertaken to monitor and control the deliverables being output by the project. This includes the identification of changes, risks and issues, the review of deliverable quality and the measurement of each deliverable being produced against the acceptance criteria. Once all of the deliverables have been produced and the customer has accepted the final solution, the project is ready for closure.

Project Closure

Project Closure involves releasing the final deliverables to the customer, handing over project documentation, terminating supplier contracts, releasing project resources and communicating the closure of the project to all stakeholders. The last remaining step is to undertake a Post Implementation Review to quantify the overall success of the project and list any lessons learnt for future projects.

The following sections provide a more detailed description of each phase and list document templates which provide the Project Manager with guidance on how to complete each phase successfully.

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2.1 Initiation

The initiation phase essentially involves the project ‘start-up’. It is the phase within which the business problem or opportunity is identified, the solution is agreed, a project formed to produce the solution and a project team appointed. The following diagram depicts the activities undertaken:

2.1.1 Develop Business Case

Once a business problem or opportunity has been identified, a Business Case is prepared. This includes:

▪ A detailed definition of the problem or opportunity

▪ An analysis of the potential solution options available. For each option, the potential benefits, costs, risks and issues are documented. A formal feasibility study may be commissioned if the feasibility of any particular solution option is not clear

▪ The recommended solution and a generic implementation plan.

The Business Case is approved by the Project Sponsor and the required funding is allocated to proceed with the project.

Template: Business Case

2.1.2 Perform Feasibility Study

At any stage during (or after) the development of a Business Case, a formal Feasibility Study may be commissioned. The purpose is to assess the likelihood of a particular solution option’s achieving the benefits outlined in the Business Case. The Feasibility Study will also investigate whether the forecast costs are reasonable, the solution is achievable, the risks are acceptable and/or any likely issues are avoidable.

Template: Feasibility Study

2.1.3 Establish Project Charter

After the solution has been agreed and funding allocated, a project is formed. The Project Charter defines the vision, objectives, scope and deliverables for the project. It also provides the organization structure (roles and responsibilities) and a summarized plan of the activities, resources and funding required to undertake the project. Finally, any risks, issues, planning assumptions and constraints are listed.

Template: Project Charter

2.1.4 Appoint Project Team

At this point the scope of the project has been defined in detail and the project team are ready to be appointed. Although a Project Manager can be appointed at any stage of the project, s/he will need to be appointed prior to the establishment of the project team. The Project Manager documents a detailed Job Description for each project role and appoints a human resource to each role based on his/her relevant skills and experience. Once the team are ‘fully resourced’, the Project Office is ready to be set-up.

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Template: Job Description

2.1.5 Set up Project Office

The Project Office is the physical environment within which the team will be based. Although it is usual to have one central project office, it is possible to have a ‘virtual project office’ environment, with project team members in various locations around the world. Regardless of the location, a successful project office environment will comprise the following components:

▪ Location (either physical or virtual)

▪ Communications (telephones, computer network, email, internet access, file storage, database storage and backup facilities)

▪ Documentation (methodology, processes, forms and registers)

▪ Tools (for accounting, project planning and risk modeling).

Template: Project Office Checklist

2.1.6 Perform Phase Review

At the end of the Initiation Phase, a Phase review is performed. This is basically a checkpoint to ensure that the project has achieved its stated objectives as planned.

Template: Phase Review Form

2.2 Planning

By this stage, the benefits and costs of the project have been clearly documented, the objectives and scope have been defined, the project team has been appointed and a formal project office environment established. It is now time to undertake detailed planning to ensure that the activities performed in the execution phase of the project are properly sequenced, resourced, executed and controlled.

2.2.1 Develop Project Plan

The first step is to document the Project Plan. A ‘Work Breakdown Structure’ (WBS) is identified, which includes a hierarchical set of phases, activities and tasks to be undertaken on the project. After the WBS has been agreed, an assessment of the effort required to undertake the activities and tasks is made. The activities and tasks are sequenced, resources are allocated and a detailed project schedule is formed. This project schedule will become the primary tool for the Project Manager to assess the progress of the project.

Template: Project Plan

2.2.2 Develop Resource Plan

Immediately after the Project Plan is formed, it is necessary to allocate the resources required to undertake each of the activities and tasks within the Project Plan. Although general groups of resources may have already been allocated to the Project Plan, a detailed resource assessment is required to identify the:

▪ Types of resources (labor, equipment and materials)

▪ Total quantities of each resource type

▪ Roles, responsibilities and skill-sets of all human resources

▪ Items, purposes and specifications of all equipment resource

▪ Items and quantities of material resource.

A schedule is assembled for each type of resource so that the Project Manager can assess the resource allocation at each stage in the project.

Template: Resource Plan

2.2.3 Develop Financial Plan

Similar to the Resource Plan, a Financial Plan is prepared to identify the quantity of money required for each stage in the project. The total cost of labor, equipment and materials is quantified and an expense schedule is defined which provides the Project Manager with an understanding of

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the forecast spending vs. the actual spending throughout the project. Preparing a detailed Financial Plan is extremely important as the project’s success will depend on whether or not it is delivered within the ‘time, cost and quality’ estimates for this project.

Template: Financial Plan

2.2.4 Develop Quality Plan

Meeting the quality expectations of the customer is critical to the success of the project. To ensure that the quality expectations are clearly defined and can reasonably be achieved, a Quality Plan is documented. The Quality Plan:

▪ Defines what quality means in terms of this project

▪ Lists clear and unambiguous quality targets for each deliverable. Each quality target provides a set of criteria and standards which must be achieved to meet the expectations of the customer

▪ Outlines a plan of activities which will assure the customer that the quality targets will be met (i.e. a Quality Assurance Plan)

▪ Identifies the techniques used to control the actual level of quality of each deliverable as it is built (i.e. a Quality Control Plan).

Finally, it is important to review the quality not only of the deliverables produced by the project but also of the management processes which produce them. A summary of each of the management processes undertaken during the execution phase is identified, including Time, Cost, Quality, Change, Risk, Issue, Procurement, Acceptance and Communications Management.

Template: Quality Plan

2.2.5 Develop Risk Plan

The foreseeable project risks are then documented within a Risk Plan and a set of actions to be taken formulated to both prevent each risk from occurring and reduce the impact of the risk should it eventuate. Developing a clear Risk Plan is an important activity within the planning phase as it is necessary to mitigate all critical project risks prior to entering the Execution phase of the project.

Template: Risk Plan

2.2.6 Develop Acceptance Plan

The key to a successful project is gaining acceptance from the customer that each deliverable produced meets (or exceeds) his/ her requirements. To clarify the criteria used to judge each deliverable for customer acceptance, an Acceptance Plan is produced. The Acceptance Plan provides the criteria for obtaining customer acceptance, a schedule of acceptance reviews within which customer acceptance will be sought and a summary of the process used to gain acceptance of each deliverable from the customer.

Template: Acceptance Plan

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2.2.7 Develop Communications Plan

Prior to the Execution phase, it is also necessary to identify how each of the stakeholders will be kept informed of the progress of the project. The Communications Plan identifies the types of information to be distributed, the methods of distributing information to stakeholders, the frequency of distribution and responsibilities of each person in the project team for distributing information regularly to stakeholders.

Template: Communications Plan

2.2.8 Develop Procurement Plan

The last planning activity within the Planning phase is to identify the elements of the Project which will be acquired from external suppliers to the project. The Procurement Plan provides a detailed description of the Products (i.e. goods and services) to be procured from suppliers, the justification for procuring each product externally, as opposed to from within the business, and the schedule for procurement. It also references the process for the selection of a preferred supplier (“Tender Process”) and the process for the actual order and delivery of the procured products (“Procurement Process”).

Template: Procurement Plan

2.2.9 Contract Suppliers

Although external suppliers may be appointed at any stage of the project, it is usual to appoint suppliers after the Project Plans have been documented but prior to the Execution phase of the project. Only at this point will the Project Manager have a clear idea of the role of the supplier and the expectations for his/her delivery. A formal Tender Process is invoked to identify a short-list of interested suppliers and select a preferred supplier to meet the procurement needs of the project. The Tender Process involves creating a Statement of Work, a Request for Information and Request for Proposal to obtain sufficient information from each potential supplier to select a preferred supplier. Once a preferred supplier has been chosen, a Supplier Contract is agreed for the delivery of the requisite product.

Templates: Statement of Work, Request for Information, Request for Proposal, Supplier Contract

2.2.10 Perform Phase Review

At the end of the Planning phase, a Phase review is performed. This is basically a checkpoint to ensure that the project has achieved its stated objectives as planned.

Template: Phase Review Form

2.3 Execution

The Execution phase is typically the longest phase of the project (in terms of duration). It is the phase within which the deliverables are physically constructed and presented to the customer for acceptance. To ensure that the customer’s requirements are met, the Project Manager monitors and controls the activities, resources and expenditure required to build each deliverable throughout the execution phase. A number of management processes are also undertaken to ensure that the project proceeds as planned.

2.3.1 Build Deliverables

This phase requires the physical construction of each deliverable for acceptance by the customer. The actual activities undertaken to construct each deliverable will vary, depending on the type of project (e.g. engineering, building development, computer infrastructure or business process re-engineering projects). Deliverables may be constructed in a ‘waterfall’ fashion (where each activity is undertaken in sequence until the deliverable is finished) or an ‘iterative’ fashion (where iterations of each deliverable are constructed until the deliverable meets the requirements of the customer). Regardless of the method used to construct each deliverable, careful monitoring and control processes should be employed to ensure that the quality of the final deliverable meets the acceptance criteria set by the customer.

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2.3.2 Monitor and Control

Whilst the Project Team are physically producing each deliverable, the Project Manager implements a series of management processes to monitor and control the activities being undertaken. An overview of each management process follows.

Time Management

Time Management is the process within which time spent by staff undertaking project tasks is recorded against the project. As time is a scarce resource on projects, it is important to record the time spent by each member of the team on a Timesheet to enable the Project Manager to control the level of resource allocated to a particular activity. A Timesheet Register provides a summary of the time currently spent on the project and enables the Project Plan to be kept fully up to date.

Templates: Time Management Process, Timesheet Form, Timesheet Register

Cost Management

Cost Management is the process by which costs (or expenses) incurred on the project are formally identified, approved and paid. Expense Forms are completed for each set of related project expenses such as labor, equipment and materials costs. Expense Forms are approved by the Project Manager and recorded within an Expense Register for audit purposes.

Templates: Cost Management Process, Expense Form, Expense Register

Quality Management

Quality is defined as “the level of conformance of the final deliverable to the customer’s requirements”. Quality Management is the process by which the quality of the deliverables is assured and controlled for the project, using Quality Assurance and Quality Control techniques. Quality reviews are frequently undertaken and the results recorded within a Quality Register.

Templates: Quality Management Process, Quality Review Form, Deliverables Register

Change Management

Change Management is the process by which changes to the project’s scope, deliverables, timescales or resources are formally defined, evaluated and approved prior to implementation. A core aspect of the Project Manager’s role is to manage change within the project successfully. This is achieved by understanding the business and system drivers requiring the change, documenting the benefits and costs of adopting the change and formulating a structured plan for implementing the change. To formally request a change it is often necessary to complete a Change

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Form. The change request details may then be recorded within a Change Register.

Templates: Change Management Process, Change Form, Change Register

Risk Management

Risk Management is the process by which risks to the project (e.g. to the scope, deliverables, timescales or resources) are formally identified, quantified and managed during the project. A project risk may be identified at any stage of the project by completing a Risk Form and recording the relevant risk details within the Risk Register.

Templates: Risk Management Process, Risk Form, Risk Register

Issue Management

Issue Management is the method by which issues currently affecting the ability of the project to produce the required deliverable are formally managed. After completion of an Issue Form (and logging the details within the Issue Register), each issue is evaluated by the Project Manager and a set of actions undertaken to resolve the issue at hand.

Templates: Issue Management Process, Issue Form, Issue Register

Procurement Management

Procurement Management is the process by which product is sourced from an external supplier. To request the delivery of product from a supplier, a Purchase Order must be approved by the Project Manager and sent to the supplier for confirmation. The status of the purchase is then tracked using a Procurement Register until the product has been delivered and accepted by the project team.

Templates: Procurement Management Process, Purchase Order Form, Procurement Register

Acceptance Management

Acceptance Management is the process by which deliverables produced by the project are reviewed and accepted by the customer as meeting his/her specific requirements. To request the acceptance of a deliverable by the customer, an Acceptance Form is completed. The Acceptance Form describes the criteria from which the deliverable has been produced and the level of satisfaction of each criterion listed.

Templates: Acceptance Management Process, Acceptance Form, Acceptance Register

Communications Management

Communications Management is the process by which formal communications messages are identified, created, reviewed and communicated within a project. The most common method of communicating the status of the project is via a Project Status Report. Each communication item released to the project stakeholders is captured within a Communications Register.

Templates: Communications Management Process, Project Status Report, Communications Register

2.3.3 Perform Phase Review

At the end of the Execution Phase, a Phase review is performed. This is basically a checkpoint to ensure that the project has achieved its stated objectives as planned.

Template: Phase Review Form

2.4 Closure

Following the completion of all project deliverables and acceptance by the customer, a successful project will have met its objectives and be ready for formal closure. Project Closure is the last phase in the project and must be conducted formally so that the business benefits delivered by the project are fully realized by the customer.

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2.4.1 Perform Project Closure

Project Closure involves undertaking a series of activities to wind up the project, including:

▪ Assessing whether the project completion criteria have been met

▪ Identifying any outstanding items (activities, risks or issues)

▪ Producing a hand-over plan to transfer the deliverables to the customer environment

▪ Listing the activities required to hand over documentation, cancel supplier contracts and release project resources to the business

▪ Communicating closure to all stakeholders and interested parties.

A Project Closure Report is submitted to the Customer and/or Project Sponsor for approval. The Project Manager is then responsible for undertaking each of the activities identified within the Project Closure Report on time and according to budget. The project is closed only when all activities identified in the Project Closure Report have been completed.

Template: Project Closure Report

2.4.2 Review Project Completion

The final activity undertaken on any project is a review of its overall success by an independent resource. Success is determined by how well it performed against the defined objectives and conformed to the management processes outlined in the planning phase. To determine performance, a number of questions are posed. For example:

▪ Did it result in the benefits defined in the Business Case?

▪ Did it achieve the objectives outlined in the Project Charter?

▪ Did it operate within the scope of the Project Charter?

▪ Did the deliverables meet the criteria defined in the Quality Plan?

▪ Was it delivered within the schedule outlined in the Project Plan?

▪ Was it delivered within the budget outlined in the Financial Plan?

To determine conformance, a review is undertaken of the level of conformity of the project activities to the management processes outlined in the Quality Plan. The above results, key achievements and lessons learnt are documented within a Post Implementation Review report and presented to the Project Sponsor for approval.

Template: Post Implementation Review

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3. Appendix

3.1 Additional Resources

And that’s it! If you complete the steps described in this ebook, then you’ll deliver more projects on time and within budget.

Hopefully you’ve found this ebook useful, by telling you what you need to do to deliver projects successfully.

If you’d now like to know how to deliver successful projects, then download the Project Management Kit.

This kit includes all of the templates listed in this ebook. The templates describe how to complete each step in the project lifecycle, helping you deliver projects faster and easier than before.

It saves you time and effort by giving you:

▪ Templates to create deliverables

▪ Forms to resolve risks and issues

▪ Plans to schedule tasks & resources

▪ Processes to monitor project delivery

▪ Reports to communicate status

▪ Charts to control project change

▪ Procedures to improve quality

▪ Checklists to measure success.

It also helps you get a head-start because:

1. It tells you which deliverables to create

2. It explains how and when to create them

3. Each template is pre-formatted

4. It includes practical examples, tips & hints

5. You simply open the templates in Word or Excel and fill in the gaps. You’ll complete tasks faster and make your life much easier than before.

By getting a head start every time you start a new project task, you’ll save an enormous amount of time delivering your project.

So by saving you time and effort and getting a head start on projects, this unique template kit will make your life much easier.

Buy this kit today for only $295. Here’s how to buy it in 3 easy steps:

1. Visit the website

2. Select the “Buy” button

3. Download the kit immediately for use.

Select the Buy button now to save time and effort on your project…

“This kit gives you the complete set of templates for managing projects. It’s great!”

Project Management Institute

Pamela Good, Vice President, Buffalo USA

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3.2 Glossary of Terms

The following definitions apply to terminology used within the Project Lifecycle:

Acceptance Management

The process by which deliverables produced by the project are reviewed and accepted by the customer as meeting their specific requirements

Acceptance Planning

The process of identifying the milestones, criteria and standards for the acceptance of project deliverables by the customer

Business Case

A document outlining the justification for the initiation of a project. It includes a description of the business problem (or opportunity), a list of the available solution options, their associated costs and benefits and a preferred option for approval

Change Management

The process by which changes to the project scope, deliverables, timescales or resources are formally defined, evaluated and approved prior to implementation

Communications Management

The process by which formal communications messages are identified, created, reviewed and communicated within a project

Communications Planning

The process of identifying the type and regularity of information to be provided to all project stakeholders to keep them informed of the progress of the project

Cost Management

The process by which costs (or expenses) incurred on the project are formally identified, approved and paid

Deliverable

A quantifiable outcome of the project which results in the partial (or full) achievement of the project objectives

Dependency

A logical relationship between two or more project activities. The four types of dependencies include: start-to-finish, start-to-start, finish-to-start, finish-to-finish

Feasibility Study

A document which identifies each of the solution options to a particular business problem (or opportunity) and assesses the likelihood of each option’s achieving the desired result

Financial Planning

The process of identifying the financial resources required to undertake the project. This includes a list of the types of costs to be incurred on the project (e.g. labor, equipment, materials and administration costs) and a schedule outlining when the respective costs are likely to be incurred

Issue

Events which are currently affecting the ability of the project to produce the required deliverables

Issue Management

The process by which issues are formally identified, communicated, monitored and resolved

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Job Description

A document which describes a particular role and its responsibilities within a project

Milestone

The recognition of an important event within the project, usually the achievement of a key project deliverable

Procurement Management

The process by which product is actually sourced from a preferred supplier, including the on-going management of the supplier relationship

Procurement Planning

The process of identifying the products to be sourced externally and the methods for acquiring them

Product

A good or service which is acquired from an external supplier to assist with the production of a project deliverable

Project

A unique endeavor to produce a set of deliverables within clearly specified time, cost and quality constraints

Project Activity

A set of project tasks which usually results in the partial (or full) completion of a project deliverable

Project Lifecycle

A series of project phases which are undertaken in either sequential or parallel order

Project Management

The skills, tools and management processes required to successfully undertake a project

Project Office

The physical premises within which Project Administration staff (e.g. the Project Manager and support staff) reside

Project Phase

A set of project activities and tasks which usually result in the completion of a project deliverable

Project Plan

A document which lists the phases, activities, tasks, timeframes and resources required to complete the project

Project Schedule

A series of planned dates within which activities and tasks have to be completed to achieve project milestones

Project Task

A specific work item to be undertaken which usually results in the partial completion of a project deliverable

Project Team

A collation of people who report to the Project Manager

Quality

The level of conformance of the final deliverable(s) to the customer’s requirements

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Quality Assurance

The preventative steps taken to eliminate any variances in the quality of the deliverable produced from the quality targets set

Quality Control

The curative steps taken to eliminate any variances in the quality of the deliverable produced from the quality targets set

Quality Management

The process by which the quality of the deliverables and management processes is assured and controlled for the project, using Quality Assurance and Quality Control techniques

Quality Planning

The process of identifying the approach taken to ensure the quality of the deliverables produced by the project and of the management processes undertaken. This includes a list of the quality criteria and standards to be achieved as well as the Quality Assurance and Quality Control techniques to be undertaken

Request for Information

A document which is issued by a project to a wide group of potential suppliers to enable those suppliers to provide summarized information outlining how they will meet the procurement requirements of the project

Request for Proposal

A document which is issued by a project to a short-listed group of suppliers to enable the suppliers to submit a detailed proposal outlining how they will meet the procurement requirements of the project

Resource

The labor, equipment and materials used to complete the activities in the Project

Resource Planning

The process of identifying the resources required to complete the project. This includes a list of the types of resources required and a schedule providing the use of and activities undertaken by each resource

Risk

Any event which is likely to adversely affect the ability of the project to achieve the defined objectives

Risk Management

The process by which risks to the project (e.g. to the scope, deliverables, timescales or resources) are formally identified, quantified and managed during the project. The process entails completing a number of actions to reduce the likelihood of occurrence and the severity of impact of each risk

Risk Mitigation

A set of actions to be taken to avoid, transfer or mitigate a risk, based on its priority. This includes the preventative actions to be taken during the project to reduce the likelihood of the risk’s occurring as well as the contingent actions to be taken to reduce the impact on the project should the risk eventuate

Risk Planning

The formulation of a document which outlines the foreseeable project risks and provides a set of actions to be taken to both prevent the risk from occurring and reduce the impact of the risk should it eventuate

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Scope

The total aggregation of deliverables to be produced by the project

Solution

A set of deliverables which, once combined, solve a particular business problem (or realize a particular business opportunity)

Stage-Gate

A checkpoint at the end of each project phase to ensure that the project has achieved its stated objectives and deliverables as planned

Statement of Work

A document which defines the procurement requirements of the project in sufficient detail to enable potential suppliers to determine if they are able to meet those requirements

Supplier Contract

An agreement between the Project Team and an external supplier for the acquisition of a defined set of products to meet the procurement requirements of the Project

Tender Document

A formal document included during the tender process which outlines the information required to provide the Project Team with the confidence that a supplier can meet the procurement needs of the project. The RFI and RFP are both examples of Tender Documents

Tender Management

The process by which interested suppliers are identified, evaluated and selected for the supply of products (goods or services) to the project. This process entails formalizing the procurement requirements and tender documentation, receiving tender responses and selecting a preferred supplier

Project Charter

A document which outlines the purpose of the project, the manner in which the project will be structured and how it will be successfully implemented

Time Management

The process within which time spent by staff undertaking project tasks is recorded against the project

See www.method123.com for the complete set of Microsoft Word and Excel document templates supporting this Guidebook.

ISBN 0-473-10445-8

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PMP Questions


1 Which of the following is an advantage of centralized contracting?

    Gives easier access to contracting expertise

    Increases company expertise in contracting

    Gives more loyalty to the project

    Allows a contracts person to work on a single project

Answer B

2 Risks will be identified during which risk management process(es)?

    Quantitative risk analysis and risk identification

    Risk identification and risk monitoring and control

    Qualitative risk analysis and risk monitoring and control

    Risk identification

Answer B

3 The highest point of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is:

    physiological satisfaction.

    attainment of survival.

    need for association.

    esteem.

Answer D

4 Who is ultimately responsible for quality management on the project?

    Project engineer

    Project manager

    Quality manager

    Team member

Answer B

5 A heuristic is best described as a:

    control tool.

    scheduling method.

    planning tool.

    rule of thumb.

Answer: D

6 If earned value (EV) = 350, actual cost (AC) = 400, planned value (PV) = 325, what is cost variance (CV)?

    350

    -75

    400

    -50

Answer D

7 A project manager has just been assigned to a new project and has been given the preliminary project scope statement and the project charter. The first thing the project manager must do is:

    create a project scope statement.

    confirm that all the stakeholders have had input into the scope.

    analyze project risk.

    begin work on a project management plan.

Answer: B

8 You are taking over a project during the planning process group and discover that six individuals have signed the project charter. Which of the following should most concern you?

    Who will be a member of the change control board

    Spending more time on configuration management

    Getting a single project sponsor

    Determining the reporting structure

Answer: D

9 The project manager is making sure that the product of the project has been completed according to the project management plan. What part of the project management process is he in?

    Planning

    Executing

    Monitoring and controlling

    Closing

Answer: D

10 The WBS and WBS dictionary are completed. The project team has begun working on identifying risks. The sponsor contacts the project manager, requesting that the responsibility assignment matrix be issued. The project has a budget of U.S. $loo,ooo and is taking place in three countries using 14 human resources. There is little risk expected for the project and the project manager has managed many projects similar to this one. What is the next thing to do?

    Understand the experience of the sponsor on similar projects.

    Create an activity list.

    Make sure the project scope is defined.

    Complete risk management and issue the responsibility assignment matrix.

Answer: B

11 Risk tolerances are determined in order to help:

    the team rank the project risks.

    the project manager estimate the project.

    the team schedule the project.

    management know how other managers will act on the project.

Answer A

12 A project manager is employed by a construction company and is responsible for the furnishing of the completed building. One of the first things that the project manager for this project should do is to write a:

    Work breakdown structure.

    Budget baseline.

    Project charter.

    Project plan.

Answer: C

13 Your company has an emergency and needs contracted work done as soon as possible. Under these circumstances, which of the following would be the helpful to add to the contract?

    A clear contract statement of work

    Requirements as to which subcontractors can be used

    Incentives

    A force majeure clause

Answer C

14 The "halo effect" refers to the tendency to:

    promote from within.

    hire the best.

    move people into project management because they are good in their technical fields.

    move people into project management because they have had project management training.

Answer C

15 A project manager is trying to complete a software development project, but cannot get enough attention for the project. Resources are focused on completing process-related work and the project manager has little authority to properly assign resources. What form of organization must the project manager be working in?

    Functional

    Matrix

    Expediter

    Coordinator

Answer: A

16 All of the following are characteristics of a project EXCEPT:

    Temporary

    Definite beginning and end

    Interrelated activities

    Repeats itself every month

Answer D

17 A team is using a fishbone diagram to help determine what quality standards will be used on the project. What part of the quality management process are they in?

    Perform quality control

    Perform quality assurance

    Quality planning

    Variable analysis

Answer C

18 The equivalent of cost reimbursable contracts is frequently termed:

    Back charge contracts.

    Fixed price contracts.

    Progress payment contracts.

    Cost plus contracts.

Answer: D

19 A buyer extends a formal invitation that contains a scope of work that seeks a response that will describe the methodology and results that will be provided to the buyer. This is called:

    Invitation to bid.

    Request for information.

    Request for proposal.

    Request for bid.

Answer: C

20 A project manager must have some work done by an outside contractor. This work has a great deal of risk associated with it, and it has become very difficult to find a contractor willing to take on the job. Which of the following types of contract would offer the greatest incentive to the contractor?

    Cost plus percentage of cost as an award fee

    Cost plus fixed fee

    Cost plus incentive fee

    Firm fixed price

Answer: A

21 Purchasing insurance is considered an example of risk:

    mitigation.

    transfer.

    acceptance.

    avoidance.

Answer B

22 A cost performance index (CPI) of 0.89 means:

    at this time, we expect the total project to cost 89 percent more than planned.

    when the project is completed we will have spent 89 percent more than planned.

    the project is only progressing at 89 percent of that planned.

    the project is only getting 89 cents out of every dollar invested.

Answer: D

23 In the matrix management organization, which of the following is true?

    The project manager is responsible for employee skills improvement.

    The functional manager is responsible for employee skills improvement.

    The project manager is responsible for the employee.s annual appraisal.

    The employee is responsible for his or her own skills improvement.

Answer: B

24 Your program manager has come to you, the project manager, for help with a bid for her newest project. You want to protect your company from financial risk. You have limited scope definition. What is the BEST type of contract to choose?

    Fixed price (FP)

    Cost plus percent of cost (CPPC)

    Time and material (T&M)

    Cost plus fixed fee (CPFF)

Answer D

25 The project management process groups are:

    Initiating, planning, expediting, and control.

    Plan, organize, develop, and control.

    Plan, do, observe, commit.

    Initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closeout.

Answer: D

26 In which project management process group is the detailed project budget created?

    Initiating

    Before the project management process

    Planning

    Executing

Answer C

27 Which of the following conflict resolution techniques will generate the MOST lasting solution?

    Forcing

    Smoothing

    Compromise

    Problem solving

Answer D

28 Decomposing the major deliverables into smaller, more manageable components to provide better control is called:

    Scope planning.

    Scope definition.

    Scope base lining.

    Scope verification.

Answer B

28 Any numbering system that is used to monitor project costs by category such as labor, supplies, or materials, for example, is called:

    Chart of accounts.

    Work breakdown structure.

    Universal accounting standard.

    Standard accounting practices.

Answer A

29 Which of the following is NOT an input to the initiating process group?

    Company processes

    The company culture

    Historical WBSs

    Project scope statement

Answer D

30 Workarounds are determined during which risk management process?

    Risk identification

    Quantitative risk analysis

    Risk response planning

    Risk monitoring and control

Answer D

31 A person who is involved in or may be affected by the activities or anyone who has something to gain or lose by the activity of the project is called a:

    Team member.

    Customer.

    Stakeholder.

    Supporter.

Answer D

32 Quality is:

    meeting and exceeding the customer's expectations.

    adding extras to make the customer happy.

    the degree to which the project meets requirements.

    conformance to management's objectives.

Answer C

33 A schedule performance index (SPI) of 0.76 means:

    you are over budget.

    you are ahead of schedule.

    you are only progressing at 76 percent of the rate originally planned.

    you are only progressing at 24 percent of the rate originally planned.

Answer C

34 Contract closure is different from administrative closure in that contract closure:

    occurs before administrative closure.

    is the only one to involve the customer.

    includes the return oiproperty.

    may be done more than once for each contract.

Answer A

35 During the full life cycle of the project, a plot of the project.s expected expenditures will usually follow a characteristic ..S.. shape. This indicates that:

    There is a cyclic nature to all projects.

    Problems will always occur in the execution phase.

    There are high expenditures during closeout.

    The bulk of the project budget will be spent in the execution phase.

Answer D

36 An output of administrative closure is the creation of:

    project archives.

    a project charter.

    a project management plan.

    a risk analysis plan.

Answer A

37 A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a new product or service is called a:

    New product development.

    Project.

    Program.

    Enterprise.

Answer B

38 An example of scope verification is:

    Reviewing the performance of an installed software module.

    Managing changes to the project schedule.

    Decomposing the WBS to a work package level.

    Performing a benefit-cost analysis to determine if we should proceed.

Answer A

39 What conflict resolution technique is a project manager using when he says, "I cannot deal with this issue now!"

    Problem solving

    Forcing

    Withdrawal

    Compromising

Answer C

40 Approved corrective action is an input to:

    scope control and scope verification.

    direct and manage project execution and integrated change control.

    develop project management plan and develop project charter.

    develop project management plan and schedule development.

Answer B

41 A group of related projects that are managed in a coordinated way that usually include an element of ongoing activity is called a:

    Major project.

    Project office.

    Program.

    Group of projects.

Answer C

42 To control the schedule, a project manager is reanalyzing the project to predict project duration. She does this by analyzing the sequence of activities with the least amount of scheduling flexibility. What technique is she using?

    Critical path method

    Flowchart

    Precedence diagramming

    Work breakdown structure

Answer A

43 A project manager has assembled the project team, identified 56 risks on the project, determined what would trigger the risks, rated them on a risk rating matrix, tested their assumptions and assessed the quality of the data used. The team is continuing to move through the risk management process. What has the project manager forgotten to do?

    Simulation

    Risk mitigation

    Overall risk ranking for the project

    Involvement of other stakeholders

Answer D

44 Configuration management is:

    Used to ensure that the description of the project product is correct and complete.

    The creation of the work breakdown structure.

    The set of procedures developed to ensure that project design criteria are met.

    A mechanism to track budget and schedule variances.

Answer C

45 A rough order of magnitude estimate is made during which project management process group?

    Project planning

    Project closing

    Project executing

    Project initiating

Answer D

46 The breakdown structure the lowest level of the breakdown for the project manager is called the:

    Activity.

    Task.

    Work package.

    Cost account.

Answer C

47 All of the following are examples of the cost of nonconformance EXCEPT?

    Rework

    Quality training

    Scrap

    Warranty costs

Answer B

48 What type of contract do you not want to use if you do not have enough labor to audit invoices?

    Cost plus fixed fee (CPFF)

    Time & material (T&M)

    Fixed price (FP)

    Fixed price incentive fee (FPIF)

49 A project manager has just been assigned to a project. The document that recognizes the existence of the project is called:

    The statement of work.

    The project assignment.

    The project charter.

    The product description.

Answer C

50 The WBS for the project represents:

    All the tangible items that must be delivered to the client.

    All the work that must be completed for the project.

    The work that must be performed by the project team.

    All the activities of the project.

Answer B

Here is a list of sample questions which would help you to understand the pattern of questions on Project Integration Management being asked in PMP Certification Exams.

You can check our complete set of PMP Mock Exams:

    PMP Mock Exams I

    PMP Mock Exams II

(1) A planning method, which provides details of the work to accomplish, but also provide some preliminary description of the work to be done in later phases is called :

    Progressive detailing

    Rolling wave

    Strategic

    Operational

Answer:B

(2) Another name of strategic planning is:

    Short term

    Operational

    Tactical

    Top down

Answer: D

(3) The type of planning that is equated with more specific data or detailed in nature is called:

    Strategic

    Operational

    Short term

    Tactical

Answer: D

(4) One of the initial project documents, issued by senior management, which outlines the authority of the project manager, is called Project charter. As a seller, what other document can be used in this place:

    Work breakdown structure

    Project scope

    Contract

    Internal memo

Answer:C

(5) During the planning development process, at times it is necessary to make certain assumptions to enhance the project plan when the data is not available. In regard to making those assumptions, which one of the following is most true for project planning purposes?

    The assumptions will be considered as true, real, or certain.

    By making the assumption, it tends to reduce the project risk.

    Project assumptions are based upon historical data used for the project.

    Senior management predefines the budget constraints.

Answer:A

(6) A project planning methodology is any structured approach used to guide the project team during development of the project plan. What is an example of this methodology?

    Standard forms or templates.

    Upper management involvement

    Functional work authorizations

    Stakeholders skills

Answer: A

(7) The engineer of the project in the planning phase and makes a significant contribution to the technical scope. This is an example of what type of skill and knowledge?

    Inherent

    Stakeholder

    Technical evaluation

    Convergent thinking

Answer: B

(8) In a program or project plan, there are always revisions to account for new or missing data. Which one of the following provides the best reason for performing a revision of the plan?

    A supplier has changed the way their product is delivered to your supplier

    Project tasks are crashed to meet their end dates

    Human resources will remain constant through out the project

    Historical data on a similar project suggests that risk events are not included in the current plan.

Answer: B

(9) The project closing process is essential to overall project planning. What is considered one of the most important steps in closing the project?

    Insuring that plans are produced to implement the project by phases.

    Issuing work orders so that financial data can be collected.

    Transition the lease of equipment to the owner

    Satisfying the contractual obligations

Answer: D

(10) Each project phase is marked by completion of one or more:

    Tasks.

    Milestones

    Deliverables

    Life cycles

(1) The Scope Statement should contain which of the following?

    Project schedule

    Project budget constraints

    Summary of project tasks , deliverables and resources required

    Project objectives

Answer:D

(2) The Scope Management Plan is included in which of the following documents.

    Project Plan

    The Work Breakdown Structure

    The Scope Statement

    Project Specifications

Answer: C

(3) Project Scope:

    is of concern only at the start of the project

    is mainly a problem to be handled by the change control procedures during the project execution phase.

    Should be managed and controlled from the project concept through close-out

    is usually not a problem after the contract or other document authorizing the project has been approved.

Answer: C

(4) The Project charter is created by:

    The project manager

    Upper management

    The Vice President over a functional management group

    The customer

Answer:B

(5) The project scope statement furnishes the basis for:

    the project scope

    Provides links to the clients functional management groups

    Allowing the project to move to the next phase

    A way to provide updated information to the accounting department

Answer:A

(6) The Scope Baseline is:

    the original description of the project's end results

    a summary description of the project's original content and end product, including basic budgetary and time constraint data

    the original project budget and schedule

    a and c

Answer: B

(7) A Project control system:

    Monitors and controls the project's schedule, costs, scope, budgets etc

    Is a mechanism which reacts to the current project status in order to endure accomplishment of project objectives

    Is only needed on large mega projects

    Is a system for controlling and executing project documentation in an uniform and timely manner

Answer: A

(8) The PM distributed a document to the stakeholders, which described the software to be developed, the functionality, the users it would serve and the installation timeline. The document was an example of:

    Product scope

    Project scope

    A combination of project and product scope

    It was not complete enough to be either a product or a project scope document

Answer: D

(9) Each item of the Work Breakdown Structure is assigned a unique identifier. What is the name of this identifier?

    Product ID number

    Code of accounts

    Quality inspection identifier

    Project activity code

Answer: B

(10) When developing a project's scope statement, which of the following should not be included?

    Project justification.

    Cost/benefit analysis

    Project deliverables

    Measurable objectives

Answer: A

(1) Milestones established by the customer must be adhered to by:

    Project manager

    Functional managers

    The customer

    Both a and b

Answer:D

(2) The decision to request an increase the resources for a project is the responsibility of the:

    Functional manager

    Project manager

    Director of project management

    Customer

Answer: B

(3) In which of the following project phases is the project schedule developed?

    Conceptual

    Planning

    Implementation

    Design

Answer: B

(4) To crash a schedule you should:

    Increase the time allowed on those tasks that have float.

    Try to increase expenditures of time only those tasks that are behind schedule.

    Replace those worker that are not performing up to par with the busy.

    Increase work efforts on those tasks that are on the critical path.

Answer:D

(5) The project scope statement furnishes the basis for:

    The project scope statement furnishes the basis for:

    Provides links to the clients functional management groups

    Allowing the project to move to the next phase

    A way to provide updated information to the accounting department

Answer:A

(6) Which of the following is NOT one of the primary needs for good project scheduling?

    Cutting costs and reducing time

    Decreasing the time required for decision making

    Eliminating idle time

    Developing better trouble shooting procedures.

Answer: D

(7) The time necessary to complete a project is referred to as:

    Implementation time

    Life cycle

    Operations cycle

    Production cycle

Answer: B

(8) The successful project managers spend most of their time:

    Planning with their personnel

    Planning with the top management

    Communication with the project team

    Studying project results.

Answer: C

(9) Resource leveling attempts to :

    Reduce resource requirements by smoothing out period-to period resource assignments.

    Ensure that the budget abnormalities are overcome.

    Reduce the amount of resources so that they can be shared with on other endeavors.

    Increase the amount of the project manager's authority so that budget dollars can be appropriated.

Answer: A

(10) A prerequisite of effective time management is:

    Knowing the dictated project completion date

    Having the most advanced software package for project planning, scheduling and control

    Having a good project WBS which identifies the major project deliverables and tasks, and the person responsible for each of them

    Having a well staffed scheduling department

Answer: A

(1) Which type of project cost estimate is the most accurate?

    Preliminary

    Definitive

    Order of magnitude

    Conceptual

Answer:B

(2) Which of the following type of contracts is most preferable to the contractor doing the project work?

    Cost plus fixed fee

    Fixed price

    Fixed price plus incentive free

    B and C

Answer: A

(3) To assist in budget control, it is suggested that the estimate occur at the _____ ____ ______ level of the WBS

    Highest

    Lowest

    Major work effort

    Third

Answer: B

(4) Cost Variance (CV) is which of the following equations?

    CV = BCWP - BCWS

    CV = BCWP - ACWP

    CV = SV / BCWS

    A and c

Answer:B

(5) Cost budgeting can be best described by which of the following?

    The process of developing the future trends along with the assessment of probabilities, uncertainties, and inflation that could occur during the project

    The process of assembling and predicting costs of a project over its life cycle

    The process of establishing budgets, standards, and a monitoring system by which the investment cost of the project can be measured and managed

    The process of gathering, accumulating, analyzing, reporting, and managing the costs on an on-going basis

Answer:C

(6) Which of the following is a direct project cost?

    Lighting and heating for the corporate office

    Workers Compensation insurance

    Piping for an irrigation project

    A and B

Answer: C

(7) Cost controls can be best described by which of the following?

    The process of developing the future trends along with the assessment of probabilities, uncertainties, and inflation that could occur during the project

    The process of assembling and predicting costs of a project over its life cycle

    The process of assembling and predicting costs of a project over its life cycle

    The process of gathering, accumulating, analyzing, reporting, and managing the costs on an on-going basis.

Answer: D

(8) The BCWS = $250, the ACWP = $350, and the BCWP = $200. Calculate the Cost Variance.

    -$150

    $150

    -$50

    $50

Answer: A

(9) One of the types of cost estimation is Order of Magnitude. This estimate:

    is performed when detailed information is available

    is performed when detailed information is available

    is used in the beginning of the project conceptualization

    Uses mostly information from past projects

    Usually made before the project is designed, and must therefore rely on the cost data of similar projects built in the past.

Answer: E

(10) Life Cycle Costing is a term that is:

    used when making decisions between alternatives

    employed principally by the government

    typically used in the construction industry

    not used within the government

    A and B

Answer: E

(1) Measured quality of a manufactured product is :

    Always constant

    Continually decreasing

    Subject to a certain amount of variation

    Continually increasing

Answer:C

(2) The process control charts are used:

    to graph what typically focuses on the prevention of a problem

    to detect the problem

    to reject the problem

    to determine the acceptability of the same

Answer: A

(3) When a record is made of an actual measured quality characteristic, such as a dimension expressed with thousands of an inch, the quality is said to be expressed by:

    traits

    variables

    attributes

    properties

Answer: B

(4) Which of the following is the most efficient means of product quality inspection?

    Acceptance sampling

    100% inspection

    Variable sampling

    a and c

Answer:C

(5) The primary components of the quality management function are :

    quality planning

    quality control and assurance

    quantitative measurement

    quantitative assessment of the project

    a and b

Answer:E

(6) Setting the number of defects before the lot is rejected, is a direct responsibility of :

    a functional worker

    the project manager

    management

    the accounting department

Answer: C

(7) Which of the following has the greatest effect on product's reliability and maintenance characteristic?

    conceptualization

    product design

    fabrication

    a and b

Answer: D

(8) On a project the project manager should strive for a "Quality Level" that :

    is the highest level possible

    is as close to the project objectives as possible

    represents the least cost to the project.

    Exceeds the specified requirements of the project.

Answer: B

(9) Quality control in the final analysis is :

    using the technical procedures of monitoring project results to decide if the outputs meet the requirements

    a production system

    an inspection system

    fitness for purpose

Answer: A

(10) Quality costs include :

    the total of all costs incurred to assure the production and delivery of acceptable products and services.

    Only costs classified as prevention, detection and corrective action.

    Only the cost of scrap, rework due to defects, customer returns and warranty costs.

    The expense of upper management

Answer: A

(1) From HR perspective, the project manager's responsibility in the planning role includes:

    Hiring the team

    Developing work schedules

    Forecasting

    Feedback sessions

    Both b and c

Answer:E

(2) Expert power is the power that comes from the amount of knowledge a person has obtained in a specific area. This type of power is:

    Critical to a project manager because the PM has to have as much or more knowledge than any of the team members to make sure the project is completed successfully

    Used by the PM to influence upper management and the critical stakeholders

    Important if the project manager wants to maintain the respect of the project team

    Used sparingly if at all by the PM because the PM cannot stay current on all areas of expertise and also manage the project

Answer: D

(3) To successfully motivate a team in today's high tech - high demand environment, which motivational theories should the PM use to maintain a happy, productive team?

    Expectancy and Theory X

    Theory Y and Maslow's Hierarchy

    Theory Y, Expectancy and Herzberg's Hygiene Factors

    Herzberg's Hygiene Factors and Expectancy

Answer: C

(4) To successfully manage a project, the PM must play both a manager and leadership role. In the manager role the PM will do all but which of the following:

    Develop procedures

    Align people

    Produce results for stakeholder

    Focus on the organization and its structure

    Both b and d

Answer:B

(5) To be successful in a functional organization, the PM must rely on:

    Referent power

    Formal authority

    Informal power structure

    Broad span of control

    Both a and c

Answer:E

(6) Which form of power is the LEAST effective from the project manager's viewpoint in terms of influencing functional managers?

    Formal power

    Expert power

    Penalty power

    Referent power

Answer: C

(7) The Project manager should be able to fulfill the role of:

    an integrator

    a functional manager

    a line manager

    a sponsor

Answer: A

(8) The most successful project manager usually:

    works their way up from assistants in the project office to full-fledged project managers, supplementing that experience with formal education.

    Comes right from Harvard's MBA program into managing very large projects.

    Is considered the technical expert of their field.

    Has considerable experience as a functional manager before moving into the project management arena.

Answer: A

(9) Which of the following is an important action that must be taken by top management when implementing project management in an organization?

    Completely selling the project management concept to the entire organization.

    Choice of the type of project manager.

    Choice of the type of project organization to be utilized.

    All of the above.

Answer: D

(10) The project manager has the most authority in the __________________ type of organization.

    Project expediter

    Matrix

    Projectized organization

    Functional

Answer: C

(1) Which of the following can cause a communication barrier?

    Differing perceptions as to project goals and objectives

    Insufficient action on the part of the project manager

    Competition for facilities, equipment, material, manpower and other resources

    Personality conflicts between managers and/ or other personnel

    Resistance to change

    All of the above

Answer:F

(2) Most of the project manager's external communication links consist of:

    Written documents

    Oral communication

    Tactile contact

    Informal contact

Answer: A

(3) The critical element in a project's communication system is the:

    Progress report

    Project directive

    Project manager

    Customer

Answer: C

(4) Communication management:

    Is important only in projects involving telephone, television, radio, or newspaper production facilities and operations

    Is not a big problem for people with normal speech, sight and hearing

    Involves the originator, the message, the medium and the receiver

    Preparing an agenda

Answer:C

(5) Truly effective communication:

    Depends on using multiple channels

    Depends on selecting the right method for each message and avoiding duplication, since everyone is overloaded with information

    Cannot depend solely on non-verbal signals which might be misunderstood

    Can only be achieved by communication professional

    a, b and c

Answer:E

(6) Methods of transmitting include:

    Oral and written

    Non-verbal/ visual

    Tactile, involuntary and intuitive

    All of the above

Answer: D

(7) A project management information system consists of:

    A project management software package operating on appropriate computer facilities

    Hardware, software, documents, and procedures

    Automated and manual methods for gathering, recording, filtering, and dissemination of pertinent information for members of a project team

    All of the above

Answer: D

(8) The process of communication contains four major parts. Which part is the vehicle or method used to convey the message?

    Communicator

    Message

    Medium

    Recipient

Answer: C

(9) The contemporary view of conflict is that:

    Conflict is bad

    Conflict is caused by trouble makers

    Conflict should be avoided

    Conflict is often beneficial

Answer: D

(10) Approximately what percentage of the project manager's time is spent in some form of communication, such as: conferences, meetings, writing memos, reading and preparing reports, and talking with project team members, upper management, and all other stalk holders?

    10-20%

    50-70%

    75-90%

    21-45%

Answer: C

Here is a list of sample questions which would help you to understand the pattern of questions on Project Risk Management being asked in PMP Certification Exams.

You can check our complete set of PMP Mock Exams:

    PMP Mock Exams I

    PMP Mock Exams II

(1) PMI states that there are two risk types : business and insurable. Which of the following are considered insurable risks?

    Employee replacement costs

    Opportunity costs

    Sunken costs

    Damage caused by a bonded contractor

    A and D

Answer:F

(2) The Three attributes of project risk are _________, ___________ and ___________.

    What might happen, who it happens to, and how much will it cost

    Notification, frequency of relevant events, probability of occurrence

    Risk cost, quality, control

    Quality, risk planning, total number of risk events

    Risk event, probability occurrence, the amount at stake

Answer: E

(3) A risk is defined as what might happened to the ____________ of the project

    assessment

    detriment

    schedule

    cost

    scope

Answer: B

(4) When is the project's amount at stake the lowest

    conceptual

    design

    close-out

    implementation

Answer:A

(5) A new project was initiated that involves new technology and subsequently has never been done before. What type of contract would to owner want to issue to reduce or eliminate as much risk as possible.

    Firm fixed price

    Cost plus fix fee

    Cost plus incentive fee

    Lump sum

    A and D

Answer:E

(6) What is the most accurate method of obtaining project information that can reduce the amount of risk?

    Observations on the current project

    Determining the risk by using brainstorming techniques

    The use of historical data from previous projects that were similar in nature

    Sensitivity analysis

    Delphi technique.

Answer: C

(7) Which of the following fit the category of external risks?

    Project delays, budget under-runs, movement of city utilities

    Regulatory, currency changes, taxation

    Natural disasters, regulatory, design

    Inflation, design, social impact

    Political unrest, budget overruns, size and complexity of the project

Answer: B

(8) Decision trees are best used for :

    Determining the interaction of the amount at stake and the expected value

    Association of the probabilities with the risk events

    An illustration of how to see the interactions between decisions and the associated events

    A flow chart which determines the standard deviation of the risk event

Answer: C

(9) The total amount of risk that is calculated for a project is found by

    Multiplying the sum of each the risk times the amount at stake

    Calculating the cumulative sum of the probability for each risk and multiplying this value times the consequence of occurrence of the risk events

    Cannot be calculated since all risks are not know

    The amount of project reserves available

Answer: B

(10) A situation in which one of two or more risk events will follow an act, but the precise nature of these events may not be known and the probabilities of their occurring cannot be objectively assigned, is the definition of

    certainty

    uncertainty

    risk

    risk adversity

    None of the above.

Answer: B

(1) The fixed price contract is advantageous to the buyer because it:

    requires extremely well defined specifications

    requires formal procedures for scope changes

    contractor assumes financial and technical risk

    has a known cost

Answer:C

(2) The contract administration function includes:

    funding management

    managing relationships and interfaces

    performance control

    all of the above

Answer: D

(3) The major type(s) of standard warranty(ies) that are used in the business environment is(are):

    express

    implied

    negotiated

    a and b

Answer: D

(4) A Unit Price (UP) contract provides:

    a reimbursement of allowable costs plus a fixed fee which is paid proportionately as the contract progresses

    a reimbursement of allowable cost of services performed plus an agreed upon percentage of the estimated cost as profit

    the supplier with a fixed price for delivered performance plus a predetermined fee for superior performance

    a fixed price where the supplier agrees to furnish goods and services at unit rates and the final price is dependent on the quantities needed to carry out the work.

Answer:D

(5) Which phase of the Acquisition Process Cycle does source qualifications reside?

    Pre-Award

    Award

    Post Award

    Origination

Answer:B

(6) From a contract management perspective, the project manager must consider the:

    acquisition process

    contract administration

    ecological environment

    offer, acceptance, and consideration

    a and b

Answer: E

(7) A performance bond should always provide what part of the contract value?

    10 percent

    25 percent

    50 percent

    100 percent

    Normally a performance bond, depending upon the state, only stipulates that the contractor will guarantee the work for a certain period of time.

Answer: D

(8) Which contract type places the most risk on the seller?

    Cost plus percentage fee

    Cost plus incentive fee

    Cost plus fixed fee

    Fixed price plus incentive fee

    Firm fixed price

Answer: E

(9) What are the types of express guarantees?

    Design/ mechanical

    Field workmanship

    Common Work

    Length of service

    a and b

Answer: E

(10) What is the last item a project manager must do to finalize project close-out?

    Reassign the team

    Contract completion

    Archive the project records

    Complete lessons learned

    None of the above.

Answer: B

(1) From HR perspective, the project manager's responsibility in the planning role includes:

    Hiring the team

    Developing work schedules

    Forecasting

    Feedback sessions

    Both b and c

Answer:E

(2) Expert power is the power that comes from the amount of knowledge a person has obtained in a specific area. This type of power is:

    Critical to a project manager because the PM has to have as much or more knowledge than any of the team members to make sure the project is completed successfully

    Used by the PM to influence upper management and the critical stakeholders

    Important if the project manager wants to maintain the respect of the project team

    Used sparingly if at all by the PM because the PM cannot stay current on all areas of expertise and also manage the project

Answer: D

(3) To successfully motivate a team in today's high tech - high demand environment, which motivational theories should the PM use to maintain a happy, productive team?

    Expectancy and Theory X

    Theory Y and Maslow's Hierarchy

    Theory Y, Expectancy and Herzberg's Hygiene Factors

    Herzberg's Hygiene Factors and Expectancy

Answer: C

(4) To successfully manage a project, the PM must play both a manager and leadership role. In the manager role the PM will do all but which of the following:

    Develop procedures

    Align people

    Produce results for stakeholder

    Focus on the organization and its structure

    Both b and d

Answer:B

(5) To be successful in a functional organization, the PM must rely on:

    Referent power

    Formal authority

    Informal power structure

    Broad span of control

    Both a and c

Answer:E

(6) Which form of power is the LEAST effective from the project manager's viewpoint in terms of influencing functional managers?

    Formal power

    Expert power

    Penalty power

    Referent power

Answer: C

(7) The Project manager should be able to fulfill the role of:

    an integrator

    a functional manager

    a line manager

    a sponsor

Answer: A

(8) The most successful project manager usually:

    works their way up from assistants in the project office to full-fledged project managers, supplementing that experience with formal education.

    Comes right from Harvard's MBA program into managing very large projects.

    Is considered the technical expert of their field.

    Has considerable experience as a functional manager before moving into the project management arena.

Answer: A

(9) Which of the following is an important action that must be taken by top management when implementing project management in an organization?

    Completely selling the project management concept to the entire organization.

    Choice of the type of project manager.

    Choice of the type of project organization to be utilized.

    All of the above.

Answer: D

(10) The project manager has the most authority in the __________________ type of organization.

    Project expediter

    Matrix

    Projectized organization

    Functional

Answer: C

(1) Which of the following can cause a communication barrier?

    Differing perceptions as to project goals and objectives

    Insufficient action on the part of the project manager

    Competition for facilities, equipment, material, manpower and other resources

    Personality conflicts between managers and/ or other personnel

    Resistance to change

    All of the above

Answer:F

(2) Most of the project manager's external communication links consist of:

    Written documents

    Oral communication

    Tactile contact

    Informal contact

Answer: A

(3) The critical element in a project's communication system is the:

    Progress report

    Project directive

    Project manager

    Customer

Answer: C

(4) Communication management:

    Is important only in projects involving telephone, television, radio, or newspaper production facilities and operations

    Is not a big problem for people with normal speech, sight and hearing

    Involves the originator, the message, the medium and the receiver

    Preparing an agenda

Answer:C

(5) Truly effective communication:

    Depends on using multiple channels

    Depends on selecting the right method for each message and avoiding duplication, since everyone is overloaded with information

    Cannot depend solely on non-verbal signals which might be misunderstood

    Can only be achieved by communication professional

    a, b and c

Answer:E

(6) Methods of transmitting include:

    Oral and written

    Non-verbal/ visual

    Tactile, involuntary and intuitive

    All of the above

Answer: D

(7) A project management information system consists of:

    A project management software package operating on appropriate computer facilities

    Hardware, software, documents, and procedures

    Automated and manual methods for gathering, recording, filtering, and dissemination of pertinent information for members of a project team

    All of the above

Answer: D

(8) The process of communication contains four major parts. Which part is the vehicle or method used to convey the message?

    Communicator

    Message

    Medium

    Recipient

Answer: C

(9) The contemporary view of conflict is that:

    Conflict is bad

    Conflict is caused by trouble makers

    Conflict should be avoided

    Conflict is often beneficial

Answer: D

(10) Approximately what percentage of the project manager's time is spent in some form of communication, such as: conferences, meetings, writing memos, reading and preparing reports, and talking with project team members, upper management, and all other stalk holders?

    10-20%

    50-70%

    75-90%

    21-45%

Answer: C

1 Which of the following is an advantage of centralized contracting?

    Gives easier access to contracting expertise

    Increases company expertise in contracting

    Gives more loyalty to the project

    Allows a contracts person to work on a single project

Answer B

2 Risks will be identified during which risk management process(es)?

    Quantitative risk analysis and risk identification

    Risk identification and risk monitoring and control

    Qualitative risk analysis and risk monitoring and control

    Risk identification

Answer B

3 The highest point of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is:

    physiological satisfaction.

    attainment of survival.

    need for association.

    esteem.

Answer D

4 Who is ultimately responsible for quality management on the project?

    Project engineer

    Project manager

    Quality manager

    Team member

Answer B

5 A heuristic is best described as a:

    control tool.

    scheduling method.

    planning tool.

    rule of thumb.

Answer: D

6 If earned value (EV) = 350, actual cost (AC) = 400, planned value (PV) = 325, what is cost variance (CV)?

    350

    -75

    400

    -50

Answer D

7 A project manager has just been assigned to a new project and has been given the preliminary project scope statement and the project charter. The first thing the project manager must do is:

    create a project scope statement.

    confirm that all the stakeholders have had input into the scope.

    analyze project risk.

    begin work on a project management plan.

Answer: B

8 You are taking over a project during the planning process group and discover that six individuals have signed the project charter. Which of the following should most concern you?

    Who will be a member of the change control board

    Spending more time on configuration management

    Getting a single project sponsor

    Determining the reporting structure

Answer: D

9 The project manager is making sure that the product of the project has been completed according to the project management plan. What part of the project management process is he in?

    Planning

    Executing

    Monitoring and controlling

    Closing

Answer: D

10 The WBS and WBS dictionary are completed. The project team has begun working on identifying risks. The sponsor contacts the project manager, requesting that the responsibility assignment matrix be issued. The project has a budget of U.S. $loo,ooo and is taking place in three countries using 14 human resources. There is little risk expected for the project and the project manager has managed many projects similar to this one. What is the next thing to do?

    Understand the experience of the sponsor on similar projects.

    Create an activity list.

    Make sure the project scope is defined.

    Complete risk management and issue the responsibility assignment matrix.

Answer: B

11 Risk tolerances are determined in order to help:

    the team rank the project risks.

    the project manager estimate the project.

    the team schedule the project.

    management know how other managers will act on the project.

Answer A

12 A project manager is employed by a construction company and is responsible for the furnishing of the completed building. One of the first things that the project manager for this project should do is to write a:

    Work breakdown structure.

    Budget baseline.

    Project charter.

    Project plan.

Answer: C

13 Your company has an emergency and needs contracted work done as soon as possible. Under these circumstances, which of the following would be the helpful to add to the contract?

    A clear contract statement of work

    Requirements as to which subcontractors can be used

    Incentives

    A force majeure clause

Answer C

14 The "halo effect" refers to the tendency to:

    promote from within.

    hire the best.

    move people into project management because they are good in their technical fields.

    move people into project management because they have had project management training.

Answer C

15 A project manager is trying to complete a software development project, but cannot get enough attention for the project. Resources are focused on completing process-related work and the project manager has little authority to properly assign resources. What form of organization must the project manager be working in?

    Functional

    Matrix

    Expediter

    Coordinator

Answer: A

16 All of the following are characteristics of a project EXCEPT:

    Temporary

    Definite beginning and end

    Interrelated activities

    Repeats itself every month

Answer D

17 A team is using a fishbone diagram to help determine what quality standards will be used on the project. What part of the quality management process are they in?

    Perform quality control

    Perform quality assurance

    Quality planning

    Variable analysis

Answer C

18 The equivalent of cost reimbursable contracts is frequently termed:

    Back charge contracts.

    Fixed price contracts.

    Progress payment contracts.

    Cost plus contracts.

Answer: D

19 A buyer extends a formal invitation that contains a scope of work that seeks a response that will describe the methodology and results that will be provided to the buyer. This is called:

    Invitation to bid.

    Request for information.

    Request for proposal.

    Request for bid.

Answer: C

20 A project manager must have some work done by an outside contractor. This work has a great deal of risk associated with it, and it has become very difficult to find a contractor willing to take on the job. Which of the following types of contract would offer the greatest incentive to the contractor?

    Cost plus percentage of cost as an award fee

    Cost plus fixed fee

    Cost plus incentive fee

    Firm fixed price

Answer: A

21 Purchasing insurance is considered an example of risk:

    mitigation.

    transfer.

    acceptance.

    avoidance.

Answer B

22 A cost performance index (CPI) of 0.89 means:

    at this time, we expect the total project to cost 89 percent more than planned.

    when the project is completed we will have spent 89 percent more than planned.

    the project is only progressing at 89 percent of that planned.

    the project is only getting 89 cents out of every dollar invested.

Answer: D

23 In the matrix management organization, which of the following is true?

    The project manager is responsible for employee skills improvement.

    The functional manager is responsible for employee skills improvement.

    The project manager is responsible for the employee.s annual appraisal.

    The employee is responsible for his or her own skills improvement.

Answer: B

24 Your program manager has come to you, the project manager, for help with a bid for her newest project. You want to protect your company from financial risk. You have limited scope definition. What is the BEST type of contract to choose?

    Fixed price (FP)

    Cost plus percent of cost (CPPC)

    Time and material (T&M)

    Cost plus fixed fee (CPFF)

Answer D

25 The project management process groups are:

    Initiating, planning, expediting, and control.

    Plan, organize, develop, and control.

    Plan, do, observe, commit.

    Initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closeout.

Answer: D

26 In which project management process group is the detailed project budget created?

    Initiating

    Before the project management process

    Planning

    Executing

Answer C

27 Which of the following conflict resolution techniques will generate the MOST lasting solution?

    Forcing

    Smoothing

    Compromise

    Problem solving

Answer D

28 Decomposing the major deliverables into smaller, more manageable components to provide better control is called:

    Scope planning.

    Scope definition.

    Scope base lining.

    Scope verification.

Answer B

28 Any numbering system that is used to monitor project costs by category such as labor, supplies, or materials, for example, is called:

    Chart of accounts.

    Work breakdown structure.

    Universal accounting standard.

    Standard accounting practices.

Answer A

29 Which of the following is NOT an input to the initiating process group?

    Company processes

    The company culture

    Historical WBSs

    Project scope statement

Answer D

30 Workarounds are determined during which risk management process?

    Risk identification

    Quantitative risk analysis

    Risk response planning

    Risk monitoring and control

Answer D

31 A person who is involved in or may be affected by the activities or anyone who has something to gain or lose by the activity of the project is called a:

    Team member.

    Customer.

    Stakeholder.

    Supporter.

Answer D

32 Quality is:

    meeting and exceeding the customer's expectations.

    adding extras to make the customer happy.

    the degree to which the project meets requirements.

    conformance to management's objectives.

Answer C

33 A schedule performance index (SPI) of 0.76 means:

    you are over budget.

    you are ahead of schedule.

    you are only progressing at 76 percent of the rate originally planned.

    you are only progressing at 24 percent of the rate originally planned.

Answer C

34 Contract closure is different from administrative closure in that contract closure:

    occurs before administrative closure.

    is the only one to involve the customer.

    includes the return oiproperty.

    may be done more than once for each contract.

Answer A

35 During the full life cycle of the project, a plot of the project.s expected expenditures will usually follow a characteristic ..S.. shape. This indicates that:

    There is a cyclic nature to all projects.

    Problems will always occur in the execution phase.

    There are high expenditures during closeout.

    The bulk of the project budget will be spent in the execution phase.

Answer D

36 An output of administrative closure is the creation of:

    project archives.

    a project charter.

    a project management plan.

    a risk analysis plan.

Answer A

37 A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a new product or service is called a:

    New product development.

    Project.

    Program.

    Enterprise.

Answer B

38 An example of scope verification is:

    Reviewing the performance of an installed software module.

    Managing changes to the project schedule.

    Decomposing the WBS to a work package level.

    Performing a benefit-cost analysis to determine if we should proceed.

Answer A

39 What conflict resolution technique is a project manager using when he says, "I cannot deal with this issue now!"

    Problem solving

    Forcing

    Withdrawal

    Compromising

Answer C

40 Approved corrective action is an input to:

    scope control and scope verification.

    direct and manage project execution and integrated change control.

    develop project management plan and develop project charter.

    develop project management plan and schedule development.

Answer B

41 A group of related projects that are managed in a coordinated way that usually include an element of ongoing activity is called a:

    Major project.

    Project office.

    Program.

    Group of projects.

Answer C

42 To control the schedule, a project manager is reanalyzing the project to predict project duration. She does this by analyzing the sequence of activities with the least amount of scheduling flexibility. What technique is she using?

    Critical path method

    Flowchart

    Precedence diagramming

    Work breakdown structure

Answer A

43 A project manager has assembled the project team, identified 56 risks on the project, determined what would trigger the risks, rated them on a risk rating matrix, tested their assumptions and assessed the quality of the data used. The team is continuing to move through the risk management process. What has the project manager forgotten to do?

    Simulation

    Risk mitigation

    Overall risk ranking for the project

    Involvement of other stakeholders

Answer D

44 Configuration management is:

    Used to ensure that the description of the project product is correct and complete.

    The creation of the work breakdown structure.

    The set of procedures developed to ensure that project design criteria are met.

    A mechanism to track budget and schedule variances.

Answer C

45 A rough order of magnitude estimate is made during which project management process group?

    Project planning

    Project closing

    Project executing

    Project initiating

Answer D

46 The breakdown structure the lowest level of the breakdown for the project manager is called the:

    Activity.

    Task.

    Work package.

    Cost account.

Answer C

47 All of the following are examples of the cost of nonconformance EXCEPT?

    Rework

    Quality training

    Scrap

    Warranty costs

Answer B

48 What type of contract do you not want to use if you do not have enough labor to audit invoices?

    Cost plus fixed fee (CPFF)

    Time & material (T&M)

    Fixed price (FP)

    Fixed price incentive fee (FPIF)

49 A project manager has just been assigned to a project. The document that recognizes the existence of the project is called:

    The statement of work.

    The project assignment.

    The project charter.

    The product description.

Answer C

50 The WBS for the project represents:

    All the tangible items that must be delivered to the client.

    All the work that must be completed for the project.

    The work that must be performed by the project team.

    All the activities of the project.

Answer B

51 A manager that manages a group of related projects is called a:

    Project manager.

    Project expediter.

    Program coordinator.

    Program manager.

Answer D

52 A functional manager needs to communicate the needs of his or her personnel requirements and the utilization of each person as well as the assignments that they have in the future. To best accomplish this, what type of document should be used?

    Gantt chart

    Network diagram

    Staffing plan

    Responsibility matrix

Answer C

53 A project manager is faced with making a decision about a risk that the team has identified. The risk involves the design of a bicycle. It has been found that the neck of the bicycle, where the steering bearing is located and the two supporting bars of the frame come together, will corrode in a high salt environment. If this takes place the neck may fail and injure the rider. The project team decides that the design of the bicycle should be modified by using corrosion resistant materials in the design of the neck. This will eliminate the risk from consideration. This technique is called:

    Risk avoidance.

    Risk acceptance.

    Risk rejection.

    Risk deflection.

Answer A

54 You are a project manager leading a cross-functional project team in a weak matrix environment. None of your project team members report to you functionally and you do not have the ability to directly reward their performance. The project is difficult, involving tight date constraints and challenging quality standards. Which of the following types of project management power will likely be the most effective in this circumstance?

    Referent

    Expert

    Penalty

    Formal

Answer B

55 If project A has a net present value (NPV) of U.S. $30,000 and project B has an NPV of U.S. $50,000, what is the opportunity cost if project B is selected?

    $23,000

    $30,000

    $20,000

    $50,000

Answer B

56 The contingency budget will:

    Reduce the probability of scope changes.

    Reduce the probability of cost overruns.

    Increase the probability of a cost overrun.

    Increase the probability of scope changes.

Answer B

57 A project manager is quantifying risk for her project. Several of her experts are offsite, but wish to be included. How can this be done?

    Use Monte Carlo analysis using the Internet as a tool.

    Apply the critical path method.

    Determine options for recommended corrective action.

    Apply the Delphi Technique.

Answer D

58 What percentage of the total distribution are 3 sigma from the mean equal to?

    68.26%

    99.99%

    95.46%

    99.73%

Answer D

59 A project manager holds the first risk meeting of the project team. The client is present at the meeting. At the meeting several risks are identified and assigned to members of the project team for evaluation and quantification. The result of the meeting is:

    Expected value of the risk events.

    Strategies for the risk events.

    A list of potential risk events.

    General statements about risks for the project.

Answer C

60 A project manager is using weighted average duration estimates to perform schedule network analysis. Which type of mathematical analysis is being used?

    Critical path method

    PERT

    Monte Carlo

    Resource leveling

Answer B

61 An activity has an early start (ES) of day 3, a late start (LS) of day 13, an early finish (EF) of day g, and a late finish (LF) of day ig. The activity:

    is on the critical path.

    has a lag.

    is progressing well.

    is not on the critical path.

Answer D

62 Conflict resolution techniques that may be used on a project include confronting, smoothing, forcing and:

    withdrawing.

    directing.

    organizing.

    controlling.

Answer A

63 In the Monte Carlo technique, what is the criticality index?

    The number of days the project will be late divided by the project duration

    The percent of time a given activity will be on the critical path

    The percent of time an activity will be late

    The sum of the duration of the critical path activities divided by the project expected value for duration

Answer B

64 Which phase of the project is likely to have the greatest amount of its funding spent?

    Initiating

    Executing

    Planning

    Closeout

Answer B

65 A control chart shows seven data points in a row on one side of the mean. What should be done?

    Perform a design of experiments.

    Adjust the chart to reflect the new mean.

    Find an assignable cause.

    Nothing. This is the rule of seven and can be ignored.

Answer C

66 The document that is proof of upper management.s commitment to the project and gives the authority to manage the project to the project manager is called:

    The project plan.

    The project goals and objectives.

    The project charter.

    The project definition.

Answer C

67 Which of the following represents the estimated value of the work actually accomplished?

    Earned value (EV)

    Planned value (PV)

    Actual cost (AC',

    Cost variance (CV)

Answer A

68 A project manager is managing a project. The original scope baseline of the project was budgeted at $100,000. Since work on the project started there have been seventeen authorized and approved changes to the project. The changes have a value of $17,000 and the cost of investigating them prior to their approval was $2,500. What is the current budget for the project?

    $100,000

    $114,500

    $117,000

    $119,500

Answer D

69 A project team has completed, and the customer has accepted, the completed project scope. However, the lessons learned required by the project management office have not been completed. What is the status of the project?

    The project is incomplete because the project needs to be re-planned.

    The project is incomplete until all project and product deliverables are complete and accepted.

    The project is complete because the customer has accepted the deliverables.

    The project is complete because the project has reached the due date.

Answer B

70 You are the project manager for a project that has high visibility. Your manager wants you to prepare a presentation for him to present at a conference. Most of the material in the presentation will be facts that are the results of your project. Your manager intends to present the material under his own name. Your name will not appear. What should you do?

    Refuse to work on the presentation unless you are listed as a coauthor.

    Do the work as you were told by your manager.

    Present your own presentation.

    Meet with your manager's manager and discuss the problem.

Answer B

71 A project manager works in a company favoring the weakest authority for the project manager. The type of organization that holds the project manager to be the weakest is:

    Projectized organization.

    Strong matrix organization.

    Weak matrix organization.

    Balanced matrix.

Answer C

72 A system development project is nearing project closing when a previously unidentified risk is discovered. This could potentially affect the project's overall ability to deliver. What should be done next?

    Alert the project sponsor of potential impacts to cost, scope or schedule.

    Qualify the risk.

    Mitigate this risk by developing a risk response plan.

    Develop a workaround.

Answer B

73 You just found out that a major subcontractor for your project consistently provides deliverables late. The subcontractor approaches you and asks you to continue accepting late deliverables in exchange for a decrease in project costs. This offer is an example of:

    confronting.

    compromise.

    smoothing.

    forcing.

Answer B

74 Which of the following contains Change Management Plan ?

    Scope management plan

    Communications management plan

    Configuration management plan

    Quality management plan

Answer A

75 You are managing a project in a just in time environment. This will require more attention, because the amount of inventory in such an environment is generally:

    45 percent.

    lo percent.

    12 percent.

    o percent.

Answer D

76 Resource leveling will generally:

    Reduce the time needed to do the project.

    Increase the total time necessary to do all the tasks.

    Reduce the overutilization of resources.

    Reduce resources to the lowest skill that is possible.

Answer C

77 A task was scheduled to use two persons, full time, and take two weeks to complete. Instead, the project manager was only able to assign one person to this task. At the end of two weeks, the person assigned to the task was 75% complete. What is the cost performance index?

    0.75

    1.50

    0.25

    1.15

Answer B

78 You are a project manager who was just assigned to take over a project from another project manager who is leaving the company. The previous project manager tells you that the project is on schedule, but only because he has constantly pushed the team to perform. What is the FIRST thing you should do as the new project manager?

    Check risk status.

    Check cost performance.

    Determine a management strategy.

    Tell the team your objectives.

Answer C

79 Which of the following is considered to be a simulation technique?

    PERT analysis

    GERT analysis

    Monte Carlo analysis

    Critical path method

Answer C

80 Extensive use of ----- communication is most likely to aid in solving complex problems.

    verbal

    written

    formal

    nonverbal

Answer B

81 When checking the calendar of a team member to schedule a meeting, you see she has scheduled a meeting with a key stakeholder that you were not informed of. The best approach would be to:

    avoid mentioning it to the team member but continue to watch her activities.

    notify your boss about the problem.

    address the concern with the team member's boss.

    address the concern with the team member.

Answer D

82Project A has an internal rate of return (IRR) of 21 percent. Project B has an IRR of 7 percent. Project C has an IRR of 31 percent. Project D has an IRR of ig percent. Which of these would be the BEST project?

    Project A

    Project B

    Project C

    Project D

Answer C

83 The program evaluation and review technique (PERT) method of scheduling differs from the critical path method (CPM) because the PERT method:

    Uses weighted averages of activity durations to calculate project duration.

    Uses ..dummy.. activities to represent logic ties.

    Uses ..free float.. instead of ..total float.. in the schedule calculations.

    Uses bar charts instead of logic diagrams to portray the schedule.

Answer A

84 The key inputs to activity definition are:

    Work breakdown structure, the project schedule, and the network diagram.

    Project schedule, progress reports, and change requests.

    The project network diagram, constraints, and durations.

    The work breakdown structure, the scope statement, and historical information that supports the applicable activity

Answer D

85 The customer requests a change to the project that would increase the project risk. Which of the following should you do before all the others?

    Include the expected monetary value of the risk in the new cost estimate.

    Talk to the customer about the impact of the change.

    Analyze the impacts of the change with the team.

    Change the risk management plan.

Answer C

86 An Ishikawa diagram helps to:

    put information in its order of priority

    explore past outcomes.

    show team responsibilities.

    show functional responsibilities.

Answer 13

87 The lowest level at WBS is one of the following:

    The task.

    The activity.

    The work package.

    The element.

Answer C

88 A project manager would like to manage his project in such a way that he will be able to identify specific tasks that should be watched and managed more closely than others. The project manager should use which method?

    The PERT method

    The critical path method

    The GERT method

    The PCDM method

Answer B

89 What characteristic best describes the cost baseline?

    Total budget for the project

    Time phased budget for the project

    Total budget for the project including the contingency budget

    Total budget for the project including the contingency budget and the management reserve

Answer B

90 In attempting to complete the project faster, the project manager looks at the cost associated with crashing each activity. The best approach to crashing would also include looking at the:

    risk impact of crashing each activity.

    customer's opinion of which activities to crash.

    boss's opinion of which activities to crash and in which order.

    project life cycle phase in which the activity is due to occur.

Answer A

91 A project manager has a problem with a team member's performance. What is best form of communication for addressing this problem?

    Formal written communication

    Formal verbal communication

    Informal written communication

    Informal verbal communication

Answer D

92 Your employee is three days late with a report. Five minutes before the meeting where the topic of the report is to be discussed, she hands you the report. You notice some serious errors in it. What should you do?

    Cancel the meeting and reschedule when the report is fixed.

    Go to the meeting and tell the other attendees there are errors in the report.

    Force the employee to do the presentation and remain silent as the other attendees find the errors.

    Cancel the meeting and rewrite the report yourself.

Answer A

93 The act of doing anything that will help to bring future project performance into line with the project plan is called:

    Budget update.

    Revised cost estimate.

    Corrective action.

    Contingency planning.

Answer C

94 A project is engaged in making electronic devices. It is necessary for them to purchase materials to make the printed circuit boards. All of the parts are common parts that are available from several vendors. The most likely contract that should be issued for these parts is:

    Unit price contract.

    Firm fixed price contract.

    Cost reimbursable contract.

    Award fee contract.

Answer B

95 You are the project manager for a large project that is completed on time and on budget. The customer and all of the stakeholders are pleased with the results. As a direct result of the successful completion of the project, your manager approves a bonus of $25,000 to you. There are fifteen members of the project team. One of the people on the project team has been a very low contributor to the project; the other fourteen have all been above standard. What should you do with the money?

    Keep the money yourself; you deserve it, and the manager gave it to you.

    Divide the money equally among all the team members.

    Ask the team members how they would divide the money.

    Divide the money equally among the team members except for the substandard team member.

Answer C

96 A project manager is using a cause and effect diagram with the team to determine how various factors might be linked to potential problems. In what part of the quality management process is the project manager involved?

    Quality analysis

    Perform quality assurance

    Perform quality control

    Quality planning

Answer D

97 During which risk management process is a determination to transfer a risk made?

    Risk identification

    Quantitative risk analysis

    Risk response planning

    Risk monitoring and control

Answer C

98 Your cost forecast shows that you will have a cost overrun at the end of the project. Which of the following should you do?

    Eliminate risks in estimates and re-estimate.

    Meet with the sponsor to find out what work can be done sooner.

    Cut quality.

    Decrease scope.

Answer A

99 At the request of the project team for a large project, the company.s purchasing department advertises that they intend to let a contract for construction work associated with the project. This is called:

    Procurement planning.

    Solicitation.

    Advertising.

    The procurement process.

Answer B

100 A project is considered complete when the :

    BAC is equal to the PV.

    The EV is equal to the AC.

    The PV is equal to the AC.

    The BAC is equal to the EV.

Answer D

100 A project is considered complete when the :

    BAC is equal to the PV.

    The EV is equal to the AC.

    The PV is equal to the AC.

    The BAC is equal to the EV.

Answer D

101 A particular stakeholder has a reputation for making many changes on projects. What is the best approach a project manager can take at the beginning of the project to manage this situation?

    Say "No" to the stakeholder a few times to dissuade him from submitting more changes.

    Get the stakeholder involved in the project as early as possible.

    Talk to the stakeholder's boss to find ways to direct the stakeholder's activities to another project.

    Ask that the stakeholder not be included in the stakeholder listing.

Answer B

102 One of the things that the project manager will not have to worry about in preparing this estimate is:

    Activity listings.

    Scaling the estimate.

    Quantifying the estimate.

    Historical support for the figures used

Answer A

103 A major negotiation with a potential subcontractor is scheduled for tomorrow when you discover there is a good chance the project will be cancelled. What should you do?

    Do not spend too much time preparing for the negotiations.

    Cut the negotiations short.

    Only negotiate major items.

    Postpone the negotiations.

Answer D

104 A project manager is preparing the budget for the project. There are several inputs to the budgeting process that the project manager will use. One of the things that the project manager will not use is the:

    Cost estimates.

    Project schedule.

    Cost baseline.

    Work breakdown structure.

Answer C

105 The project status report is an example of which form of communication?

    Formal written communication

    Formal verbal communication

    Informal written communication

    Informal verbal communication

Answer A

106 What are the major advantages of the functional type of organization?

    Single point of contact for the customer

    Stable organizational structure

    Project orientation

    Multifunctional teams are easy to form

Answer B

107 The project manager.s leadership style should be matched to the corresponding developmental level of the project team and should move through successive steps in the following order:

    Disciplinary, autocratic, participative.

    Projectized, matrix, functional.

    Team building, team development, responsibility assignment.

    Directing, coaching, supporting, delegating.

Answer D

108 In matrix management organizations, if the organization maintains many of the characteristics of the functional organization and the project managers are considered more like project coordinators or expediters, it is called a:

    Strong matrix.

    Project team.

    Weak matrix.

    Project office.

Answer C

109 All of the following are part of the scope baseline EXCEPT the:

    project scope management plan.

    project scope statement.

    work breakdown structure.

    work breakdown structure dictionary.

Answer A

110 You are asked to select tools and techniques to implement a quality assurance program to supplement existing quality control activities. Which of the following would you choose?

    Quality audits

    Statistical sampling

    Pareto charts

    Trend analysis

Answer A

111 The project manager is allocating overall cost estimates to individual activities to establish a baseline for measuring project performance. What process is this?

    Cost management

    Cost estimating

    Cost budgeting

    Cost control

Answer C

112 During what part of the project management process is the project scope statement created?

    Initiating

    Planning

    Executing

    Monitoring and controlling

Answer B

113 One of the most important duties that the project manager can perform is the function of:

    Risk management.

    Quality management.

    Cost management.

    Integration.

Answer D

114 With a clear contract statement of work, a seller completes work as specified, but the buyer is not pleased with the results. The contract is considered to be:

    null and void.

    incomplete.

    complete.

    waived.

Answer C

115 The organization that is a formalized structure directed toward the support of the project community within the organization is called

    Matrix organization.

    Project office.

    Project team.

    Project management office.

Answer B

116 You have always been asked by your management to cut your project estimate by ten percent after you have given it to them. The scope of your new project is unclear and there are over 30 stakeholders. Management expects a 25 percent reduction in downtime as a result of the project. Which of the following is the BEST course of action in this situation?

    Re-plan to achieve a 35 percent improvement in downtime.

    Reduce the estimates and note the changes in the risk response plan.

    Provide an accurate estimate of the actual costs and be able to support it.

    Meet with the team to identify where you can find lo percent savings.

Answer C

117 Which of the following is the best project management tool to use to determine the longest time the project will take?

    WBS

    Network diagram

    Bar chart

    Project charter

Answer B

118 In a large organization a project expediter is being used to manage a project for an important client. The position of project expediter would be found in what kind of an organization?

    Strong matrix

    Weak matrix

    Functional

    Projectized

Answer B

119 Herzberg divided motivation factors into two classes: satisfiers and dissatisfiers. Examples of satisfiers are:

    Vacation time, assignment of a personal staff assistant.

    Work satisfaction, fringe benefits.

    Plush office space, performance based salary raise.

    Sense of personal achievement, work satisfaction.

Answer D

120 The project sponsor has just provided the preliminary project scope statement. What is the NEXT thing to do?

    Begin to complete work packages

    Complete scope verification

    Start integrated change control

    Start to create management plans

Answer D

121 Two people are arguing about what needs to be done to complete a work package. if the project manager wants to know what is going on, she should pay MOST attention to:

    what is being said and when.

    what is being said, who is saying it, and the time of day.

    physical mannerisms and what is being said.

    the pitch and tone of the voices, and physical mannerisms.

Answer D

122 The skill of listening involves more than just hearing the sounds. One of the characteristics of a good listener is that he or she:

    Finishes the speaker.s sentences.

    Takes good notes.

    Repeats some of the things said.

    Agrees with the speaker.

Answer C

123 A manufacturing project has a schedule performance index (SPI) of 0.89 and a cost performance index (CPI) of 0.91. Generally, what is the best explanation for why this occurred?

    The scope was changed.

    A supplier went out of business and a new one needed to be found.

    Additional equipment needed to be purchased.

    A critical path activity took longer and needed more labor hours to complete.

Answer D

124 The new software installation project is in progress. The project manager is working with the quality assurance department to improve everyone's confidence that the project will satisfy the quality standards. Which of the following MUST they have before they start this process?

    Quality problems

    Quality improvement

    Quality control measurements

    Rework

Answer C

125The project is not completed until:

    the project scope is completed, administrative closure is completed and payment is received.

    formal acceptance is received, and any other requirements for project closure as stated in the contract are met.

    the customer is satisfied and final payment is received.

    lessons learned are completed.

Answer B

126 Primary outputs from team development are:

    Input to performance appraisals.

    High project team morale.

    Reduced project cost.

    Greater customer satisfaction.

Answer A

127 All of the following are the responsibility of a project manager EXCEPT?

    Maintain the confidentiality of customer confidential information.

    Determine the legality of company procedures.

    Ensure that a conflict of interest does not compromise the legitimate interest of the customer.

    Provide accurate and truthful represeqtations in cost estimates.

Answer B

128 One of the mandatory things that a project manager must have in order to have good team building is:

    Commitment from top level management.

    Co-location of team members.

    Establishment of clear negotiated goals.

    Open discussion of poor individual performance.

Answer A

129 A project manager for the seller is told by her management that the project should do whatever possible to be awarded incentive money. The primary objective of incentive clauses in a contract is to:

    reduce costs for the buyer.

    help the seller control costs.

    synchronize objectives.

    reduce risk for the seller by shifting risk to the buyer.

Answer C

130 A project manager is managing a project where there will be a number of persons working together. She wants to enhance the ability of the team to work together and perform as a team. One of the things that she can do to maximize the ability of the team to do this is:

    Cohabitation.

    Co-location.

    Staffing plan.

    Work breakdown structure.

Answer B

131 A project manager will manage a large complicated project that is located in a remote part of Africa. The project will last for five years and will have the product of producing a nuclear reactor that will generate 900 megawatts of power at start-up. The best kind of organization for managing this project is:

    Strong matrix management.

    Weak matrix management.

    Projectized organization.

    Functional organization.

Answer C

131 During project executing, a team member comes to the project manager because he is not sure of what work he needs to accomplish on the project. Which of the following documents contain detailed descriptions of work packages?

    Work breakdown structure (WBS) dictionary

    Activity list

    Preliminary project scope statement

    Project scope management plan

Answer A

132 According to McGregor.s concept of theory X and theory Y, which of the following statements is true?

    Theory Y managers view their subordinates as lazy, irresponsible, and resistant to change.

    Theory Y managers view their subordinates as creative, imaginative,and agreeable to change.

    Theory X managers tend to delegate authority.

    McGregor did not conceive of theory X and theory Y.

Answer B

133 You are asked to prepare a budget for completing a project that was started last year and then shelved for six months. All the following would be included in the budget except ?

    Fixed costs

    Sunk costs

    Direct costs

    Variable costs

Answer B

134 You have just been assigned as project manager for a large manufacturing project. This one-year project is about halfway done. It involves five different sellers and 20 members of your company on the project team. You want to quickly review where the project now stands. Which of the following reports would be the most helpful in finding such information?

    Work status

    Progress

    Forecast

    Communications

Answer B

135 The customer on a project tells the project manager he has run out of money to pay for the project. What should the project manager do first?

    Shift more of the work to later in the schedule to allow time for the customer to get the funds.

    Enter administrative closure.

    Stop work.

    Release part of the project team.

Answer B

136 Which of the following is true of management by objectives (MBO)?

    The supervisor establishes performance objectives.

    The supervisor sets the general objectives and the subordinate reviews and agrees to them.

    Objectives do not need to be quantifiable.

    The supervisor and the employee jointly establish performance objectives.

Answer D

137 The Monte Carlo technique can be used to:

    Determine the amount of contingency budget needed for the project.

    Determine the amount of the management reserve.

    Determine the criticality index for an activity in the schedule.

    Determine the risk index for a risk in the project.

Answer C

138 A project manager has been overwhelmed with problems on his project. He would like to identify the root cause of the problems in order to determine where to focus his attention. Which of the following tools would be BEST for the project manager to use?

    Pareto chart

    Conflict resolution techniques

    Fishbone diagram

    Trend analysis

Answer C

139 The client demands changes to the product specification that will add only two weeks to the critical path. Which of the following is the best thing for the project manager to do?

    Compress the schedule to recover the two weeks.

    Cut scope to recover the two weeks.

    Consult with the sponsor before taking any action.

    Advise the client of the impact of the change.

Answer C

140 Lag means:

    the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the project finish date.

    the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of its successor.

    waiting time.

    the product of a forward and backward pass.

Answer C

141 A routine audit of a cost reimbursable (CR) contract determines that overcharges are being made. If the contract does not specify corrective action, the buyer should:

    continue to make project payments.

    halt payments until the problem is corrected.

    void the contract and start legal action to recover overpayments.

    change the contract to require more frequent audits.

Answer A

142 A project manager is in the middle of the executing process of a verylarge construction project when he discovers that the time needed to complete the project is longer than the time available. What is the BEST thing to do?

    Cut product scope.

    Meet with management and tell them that the required date cannot be met.

    Work overtime.

    Determine options for schedule compression and present management with your recommended option.

Answer D

143 You are a new project manager who has never managed a project before. You have been asked to plan a new project. It would be BEST in this situation to rely on during planning in order to improve your chance of success.

    your intuition and training

    stakeholder analysis

    historical information

    configuration management

Answer C

144 During the project life cycle, in which part of the life cycle will risk be the lowest?

    Initiation

    Planning

    Execution

    Closeout

Answer D

145 A project manager is managing a project where a risk occurs. There is no plan to respond to this risk. The response to a negative risk event that has no plan is called:

    Repair order.

    Workaround.

    Risk mitigation.

    Risk deflection.

Answer B

146 A project manager is dealing with risk analysis on a software development project. There is a risk that the module that creates the most important report that the system will create will not work properly and will require 200 person-hours to correct. The project manager decides to do nothing about this risk. Which of the following risk strategies is the project manager employing?

    Acceptance

    Avoidance

    Mitigation

    Deflection

Answer A

147 A trucking company expects to purchase 525 truck tires over the next year for their fleet. The company places a blanket order for the tires to a local tire vendor. At the end of a year the company has only purchased 500 of the tires. What should be done to close the contract?

    The trucking company should pay for the 25 tires and the tire vendor should deliver them.

    The total price of the blanket order should be adjusted.

    The contract should be closed because the year is up and no adjustments are necessary.

    A new blanket order should be negotiated.

Answer A

148 You are the project manager for a large project under contract with the government. The contract for this two year, multi-million dollar project was signed six months ago. You were not involved in contract negotiations or setting up procedures for managing changes, but now you are swamped with changes from the customer and from people inside your organization. Who is normally responsible for formally reviewing major changes to the projectlcontract?

    The change control board

    The contractingllegal department

    The project manager

    Senior management

Answer A

149 Which of the following media can a communicator use to present information?

    Visual

    Audio and visual

    Tactile

    Visual, audio, and tactile

Answer D

150 A project manager managing any project should perform risk analysis at what stage of the project:

    Just before any major meeting with the client.

    On a regular basis throughout the project.

    Only when justified by the awareness of new risks becoming a possibility.

    When preparing the project plan.

Answer B

151 Lessons learned are BEST completed by:

    Project manager

    Team

    Sponsor

    Stakeholders

Answer D

152 The processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken include all activities of the overall management function that determines the quality policy, objectives, and responsibilities and implements them by means such as quality planning, quality control, quality assurance, and quality improvement, within the quality system. This is called:

    Quality assurance.

    Quality control.

    Quality planning.

    Quality management.

Answer D

153 According to Deming and Juran most of the quality problems that exist are due to a defect or failure in processes that are controlled by:

    The project manager.

    The procurement manager.

    Upper management.

    Stakeholders.

Answer C

154 Work results, quality checklists, operational definitions, and the management plan are:

    Inputs to quality control.

    Outputs from quality control.

    Inputs to quality assurance.

    Outputs from quality assurance.

Answer A

155 The primary benefits of meeting quality requirements are:

    Cost and delays are reduced, production improves, cost to customer goes up, and profits go up.

    Cost and delays are reduced, production improves, market share increases, and profits go up.

    Cost and delays are reduced, capital expenditures go down, market share increases, and profits go up.

    Cost and delays are reduced, production improves, market share increases, and profits are maintained.

Answer A

156 Project quality assurance:

    Includes policing the conformance of the project team to specs.

    Provides the project team and stakeholders with standards, by which the project performance is measured.

    Is a managerial process that defines the organization, design, resources, and objectives of quality management.

    Provides confidence that the project will satisfy relevant quality standards.

Answer D

157 The primary objective of contract negotiations is to:

    get the most from the other side.

    protect the relationship.

    get the highest monetary return.

    define objectives and stick to them.

Answer B

157 The ISO 9000: 2000 standard is used to:

    Formalize the tools of quality management.

    Set international standards for quality conformance in organizations.

    Set USA national standards for quality conformance in organizations.

    Develop standards of excellence for manufacturing facilities.

Answer B

158 A project is facing a major change to its project deliverables. If the project manager is involved in determining which quality standards are relevant to the change, the project manager must be involved in:

    quality management.

    perform quality assurance.

    quality planning.

    perform quality control.

Answer C

159 What does ..cost of acceptance.. mean?

    The cost of establishing and maintaining the quality function

    The life cycle cost of the project

    The cost of inspection and reinspection, quality assurance, quality management, and quality planning

    The cost of meeting project objectives

Answer C

160 In which project management process group is the detailed project budget created?

    Initiating

    Before the project management process

    Planning

    Executing

Answer C

161 Rearranging resources so that a constant number of resources is used each month is called:

    crashing.

    floating.

    leveling.

    fast tracking.

Answer C

162 In the Shewhart and Deming cycle, the letters P D C A stand for:

    Purchase, deliver, cost, and acquisition.

    Prevent defects caused by anyone.

    Plan, do, check, and act.

    Please don.t cause accidents.

Answer C

163 A project manager must make a narrative description of the project. This narrative description covers the items that will be supplied under the contract with the client. It is called:

    The project plan.

    The statement of work.

    The exception report.

    The progress report.

Answer B

164 The project manager is considering contracting some of the work of the project to a service bureau. The service bureau has been used in the past by this project manager. The manager has several choices of contracts that can be used to subcontract this work. Which of the following is not a type of contract that the project manager might choose?

    Firm fixed price

    Make or buy

    Cost plus incentive fee

    Unit price

Answer B

165 Bidder conferences are part of:

    plan contracting.

    contract administration.

    request seller responses.

    plan purchases and acquisitions.

Answer C

166 The three principal interests in maintaining good document control are:

    Timely communication, collection of performance appraisal data, and assuring proper disposal of sensitive documents.

    Timely communication, maintaining proper approvals, and communication cost control.

    Effective communication, ability to reconstruct why decisions were made, and historical value.

    Security, change management, and procedural documentation.

Answer C

167 The use of brainstorming as a communications technique encourages which of the following?

    Team building and convergent thinking

    Divergent thinking

    Analytical results

    Use of the scientific method

Answer B

168 Which of the following techniques allows for the participants to be anonymous?

    Brain washing

    Nominal group

    Delphi technique

    Crawford slip

Answer C

169 In the communications model, communications between the sender and the receiver often are affected by communications barriers. These include all of the following except:

    Cultural differences.

    Differences in motivation.

    Educational differences.

    Lack of a communications device.

Answer D

170 The project status meeting is not going well. Everyone is talking at the same time, there are people who are not participating and many topics are being discussed at random. Which of the following rules for effective meetings is not being adhered to?

    Demonstrate courtesy and consideration of each other, control who is allowed to speak.

    Schedule meetings in advance.

    Have a purpose for the meeting, with the right people in attendance.

    Create and publish an agenda and a set of rules for controlling the meeting.

Answer D

171 The project manager has a very complex communication to prepare for the program manager. In order to ensure that the communication will be understood as completely as possible, what method of communication should be used?

    Oral

    Written

    Nonverbal

    Oral, written, and nonverbal

Answer D

172 Formal acceptance by the client or the sponsor of the project indicates that they have accepted the products of the project. This document should be signed off during what part of the project?

    Administrative closure

    As the last task in the project plan

    After the project is closed out

    When requested by the program manager

Answer A

173 A project manager has six people in a team. It is important that each of them communicates information to each of the others. How many lines of communication are there in this group of people?

    Fifteen

    Twenty-one

    Seven

    Six

Answer A

174 A project manager is considering how her time is being spent in the project. One of the things that concerns her is how much time she will be spending communicating. The percent of time that is generally spent communicating by project managers is:

    10 percent.

    20 percent.

    50 percent.

    90 percent.

Answer D

175 What is one of the KEY objectives during negotiations?

    Obtain a fair and reasonable price.

    Negotiate a price under the seller's estimate.

    Ensure that all project risks are thoroughly delineated.

    Ensure that an effective communications management plan is established.

Answer A

176 The three main types of communication are:

    written, oral, and graphic.

    written, oral, and visual.

    verbal, written, and electronic.

    verbal, formal documentation, and informal documentation.

Answer C

177 You are the project manager for a high visibility project. The margin on this project is low, and it is extremely important that the cost estimates for the work on the project be accurate. While reviewing the cost estimates for this project you notice that one of the cost estimates for an element in the WBS is 10% higher than two previous projects for very similar work. What should you do ?

    Accept the estimate because you trust all of the people on your project team, and they are responsible for estimates.

    Reduce the estimate and add the additional budget to the management reserve.

    Ask the person responsible for the estimate to explain the difference and bring supporting information to you.

    Reduce the estimate and add the additional budget to the contingency reserve.

Answer C

178 The float of an activity is determined by:

    performing a Monte Carlo analysis.

    the waiting time between activities.

    determining lag.

    determining the amount of time the activity can be delayed before it delays the critical path.

Answer D

179 Linear programming is an example of what type of project selection criteria?

    Constrained optimization

    Comparative approach

    Benefit measurement

    Impact analysis

Answer A

180 You are the manager of a research group that is developing a new chemical material. You hire a person from a competing company who has a great deal of expertise in this area. The person contributes greatly to the progress of your project. During conversations with the person you determine that many of this person.s ideas were developed by the competing company. What do you do?

    Tell the person that he or she should not mention that the ideas came from another company.

    Sign a nondisclosure agreement with this person before he or she leaves your company.

    Accept the new ideas.

    Investigate the employee for security reasons.

Answer C

181 The project life cycle differs from the product life cycle in that the project life cycle:

    does not incorporate a methodology.

    is different for each industry.

    can spawn many projects.

    describes project management activities.

Answer B

182 A manager and the head of engineering discuss a change to a major work package. After the meeting, the manager contacts you and tells you to complete the paperwork to make the change. This is an example of:

    management attention to scope management.

    management planning.

    a project expediter position.

    a change control system.

Answer C

183 A team member notifies the project manager that the activities comprising a work package are no longer appropriate. It would be BEST for the project manager to be in what part of the project management process?

    Corrective action

    Integrated change control

    Monitoring and controlling

    Project closing

Answer C

184 A project is plagued by changes to the project charter. Who has the primary responsibility to decide if these changes are necessary?

    Project manager

    Project team

    Sponsor

    Stakeholders

Answer C

185 All of the following are parts of direct and manage project execution except?

    Identifying changes

    Using a work breakdown structure

    Implementing corrective actions

    Setting up a project control system

Answer D

186 During a project team meeting, a team member suggests an enhancement to the scope that is beyond the scope of the project charter. The project manager points out that the team needs to concentrate on completing all the work and only the work required. This is an example of:

    change management process.

    scope management.

    quality analysis.

    scope decomposition.

Answer B

187 During activity definition, a team member identifies an activity that needs to be accomplished. However, another team member believes that the activity is not part of the project as he interprets the project scope statement. What is the thing for the project manager to do?

    Try to build a consensus of the team.

    Make the decision himself.

    Ask the sponsor for clarification.

    Ask senior management for clarification.

Answer C

188 A new project manager has asked you for advice on creating a work breakdown structure. After you explain the process to him, he asks you what software he should use to create the WBS and what should he do with it when he is finished creating it. You might respond that it is not the picture that is the most valuable result of creating a WBS. It is:

    a bar chart.

    team buy-in.

    activities.

    a list of risks.

Answer B

189 In a fixed price (FP) contract, the fee or profit is:

    unknown.

    part of the negotiation involved in paying every invoice.

    applied as a line item to every invoice.

    determined with the other party at the end of the project.

Answer A

190 If the optimistic estimate for an activity is 12 days, and the pessimistic estimate is 18 days, what is the standard deviation of this activity?

    1

    1.3

    6

    3

Answer A

191 If a project has a 60 percent chance of a U.S. $1oo,ooop profit and a 40 percent chance of a U.S. $1oo,ooo loss, the expected monetary value for the project is:

    $1oo,ooo profit

    $60,000 loss

    $20,000 profit

    $40,000 loss

Answer C

192 The precedence diagramming method (activity-on-node) is different from the arrow diagramming method (activity-on-arrow) because a precedence diagram:

    can use PERT.

    has four relationships among activities.

    has only finish-to-finish relationships.

    may use dummy activities.

Answer B

193 During project executing, a large number of changes are made to the project. The project manager should:

    wait until all changes are known and print out a new schedule.

    make approved changes as needed, but retain the schedule baseline.

    make only the changes approved by management.

    talk to management before any changes are made.

Answer B

194 One common way to compute estimate at completion (EAC) is to take the budget at completion (BAC) and:

    divide by SPI.

    multiply by SPI.

    multiply by CPI.

    divide by CPI.

Answer D

195 Assuming that the ends of a range of estimates are +/- 3 sigma from the mean, which of the following range estimates involves the LEAST risk?

    30 days, plus or minus 5 days

    22-30 days

    Optimistic = 26 days, most likely = 30 days, pessimistic = 33 days

    Mean of 28 days

Answer C

196 A project performed under a cost reimbursable contract has finally entered the closing process. What must the buyer remember to do?

    Decrease the risk rating of the project.

    Audit seller's cost submittals.

    Evaluate the fee he is paying.

    Make sure that the seller is not adding resources.

Answer B

197 A large, complex construction project in a foreign country requires coordination to move the required equipment through crowded city streets. To ensure the equipment is transported successfully, your contact in that country informs you that you will have to pay the local police a fee for coordinating traffic. What should you do?

    Do not pay the fee because it is a bribe.

    Eliminate the work.

    Pay the fee.

    Do not pay the fee if it is not part of the project estimate.

Answer C

198 A major negotiation with a potential subcontractor is scheduled for tomorrow when you discover there is a good chance the project will be cancelled. What should you do?

    Do not spend too much time preparing for the negotiations.

    Cut the negotiations short.

    Only negotiate major items.

    Postpone the negotiations.

Answer D

199 Which of the following is NOT an input to the initiating process group?

    Company processes

    The company culture

    Historical WBSs

    Project scope statement

Answer D

200 A project manager does not have much time to spend planning before the mandatory start date arrives. He therefore wants to move through planning as effectively as possible. Which of the following would you recommend?

    Make sure you have a completed preliminary project scope statement and then start the WBS.

    Create an activity list before creating a network diagram.

    Document all the known risks before you document the high-level assumptions.

    Finalize the quality management plan before you determine quality metrics.

Answer B



(1) A Project Manager is at the project kick-off meeting. He confidently states the vision and mission for the project. This PM is exhibiting the following leadership style:

    Hierarchal

    Authoritarian

    Charismatic

    Associative

Answer:C

(2) You are in charge of developing a new product for an organization. Your quality metrics are based on the 80th percentile of each of the last three products developed. This is an example of:

    Statistical sampling

    Metrics

    Benchmarking

    Operational definitions

Answer: C

(3) The two closing procedures are called:

    Contract close out and scope verification

    Contract close out and Close Project

    Project closure and product verification

    Project closure and lessons learned

Answer: B

(4) During the schedule development process the Project Manager may have to go through several iterations of the schedule before establishing the schedule baseline. All of the following are tools and techniques that may be used during this process:

    Critical Path Method, GERT, Resource Requirements

    Resource Leveling Heuristics, Mathematical Analysis, Calendars

    Duration compression, Resource Leveling Heuristics, PERT

    GERT, PERT, Leads and Lags

Answer:C

(5) Which of the following models of conflict resolution allows a cooling off period, but seldom resolves the issue in the long term?

    Problem solving

    Withdrawal

    Forcing

    Smoothing

Answer:B

(6) The receiver filters messages based on all but the following:

    Culture

    Semantics

    Language

    Distance

    Knowledge

Answer: D

(7) How much time does the typical project manager spend communicating both formally and informally?

    40-60%

    50-70%

    60-80%

    75-90%

Answer: D

(8) Group brainstorming encourages all of the following except:

    Team building

    Analysis of alternatives

    Convergent thinking

    Uninhibited verbalization

Answer: C

(9) The critical element in a project's communication system is the:

    Progress report

    Project directive

    Project manager

    Customer

Answer: C

(10) System integration consists of:

    Assuring that the pieces of a project come together at the right time

    Planning for contingencies that may occur throughout the life cycle of the project

    The pieces of the project function as an integration unit

    a and c

Answer: D

(11) Performance reviews are held to:

    Correct the project manager's mistakes.

    Provide for answers for upper levels of management

    To assess project status or progress

    To apprise the project costs and cost trends of the project

Answer: C

(12) A complex project will fit best in what type of organization?

    Functional

    Cross-functional

    Matrix

    Balanced

Answer:C

(13) Which of the following could be an appropriate WBS code for a work package at the fourth level in a WBS where the top level code is 1.0?

    1.4

    1.1.1.1

    1.2.3.4

    a and c

    b and c

Answer:E

(14) Which of the following Project Scope Management processes involves subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components?

    Scope Planning

    Initiation

    Scope Change Control

    Scope Definition

    Create WBS

Answer:E

(15) The review of key deliverables and project performance at the conclusion of a project phase is called:

    phase exit

    kill point

    stage gate

    a and c

    all of the above

Answer:E

(16) Project scope is:

    The work that must be done in order to deliver a product with the specified features and functions.

    The features and functions that are to be included in a product or service.

    A narrative description of work to be performed under contract.

    a and b

    all of the above

Answer:A

(17)The unique identifiers assigned to each item of a WBS are often known collectively as:

    The work package codes

    The project identifiers

    The code of accounts

    The element accounts

Answer:C

(18) The sender of a message is responsible for:

    Confirming the message is understood

    Ensuring the receiver agrees with the message

    Scheduling communication exchange

    Presenting the message in the most agreeable manner

Answer: A

(19) What are the best uses of PERT:

    Used in the planning phase to do " what if for the project.

    Assist in the controlling of changes to the project.

    Is used in the process of preparing a WBS for the project.

    To measure future consequences of activities.

    a and d.

Answer: E

(20) Change requests can occur due to:

    An external event such as a change in government regulation.

    An error or omission in defining the scope of the product.

    An error or omission in defining the scope of the project.

    a and c

    all of the above

Answer:E

(21) A project plan is:

    A formal, approved document used to guide both project execution and project control.

    A document issued by senior management that provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.

    A narrative description of products or services to be supplied.

    A document describing the organizational breakdown structure of the company.

Answer:A

(22) Which of the following is NOT an example of a type of schedule report?

    Gantt chart

    Milestone chart

    Fishbone diagram

    Network diagram

Answer:C

(23) The most important criteria in selecting project selection method is:

    Ease of use

    Cost of using it

    Available expertise

    Capability

    Realism

Answer:E

(24) What is Team Development?

    Setting up a team of people with the skills set that are required

    Sending you project team to a PMI seminar

    Motivating your project team members

    Enhancing the ability of stakeholders to contribute as individuals

    Enhancing the ability of the team to function as a team

Answer:D&E

(25) 3 major processes in Project HRM:

    Staff recruitment, project staff planning and team building

    HR planning, Acquire Project Team and Develop Project Team

    Rewarding, salary reviews and penalties

    Staff acquisition, staff training, staff deployment

Answer:B

(26) A project is defined as:

    A process of considerable scope that implements a plan.

    An endeavor, which is planned, executed, and controlled; performed by people; and constrained by limited resources.

    A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.

    An objective based effort of temporary nature.

Answer:C

(27) General management encompasses:

    Planning, organizing, staffing, executing, and controlling the operations of an ongoing enterprise.

    Business policy, financial management, business economics, contract administration, and legal services necessary for operating an enterprise.

    Business strategy, planning and controlling, organizational behavior, procurement, and personnel administration required for managing the ongoing aspect of a business venture.

    Organizational development, staffing, marketing and sales, procurement, and contract administration as part of an ongoing organization.

Answer:A

(28) Project management processes can be organized into:

    Initiating, planning, contracting, executing, and administration

    Designing, developing, testing, and implementing

    Initiating, designing, planning, executing, controlling, and implementation

    Initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing

Answer:D

(29) ___________ must be measured regularly to identify variance from the plan.

    Stakeholder requirements

    Project performance

    Schedule progress

    Cost and schedule

Answer:B

(30) A project kick off meeting is usually conducted to:

    Setup project team and announce the PM assignment

    To draft project charter

    Build up team spirit

    Define project scope and develop WBS

Answer:A

(31) Which of the following is not an external-unpredictable risk?

    Changes in government regulations

    Natural hazards

    Unexpected environmental side effects

    Inflation

Answer:D

(32) Maslow ranked Human needs from the highest to lowest:

    Self actualization; self promotion; social; security and physiological needs

    Self esteem; self actualization; social; security and physiological

    Self actualization; self esteem; social; security and physiological

    Self fulfillment; self esteem; social; security and physiological

Answer:C

(33) Which of the following statements concerning contract type is correct?

    A fixed price contract contains the most risk for the buyer.

    Cost reimbursable contracts offer sellers the highest profit potential.

    Lump sum contracts offer sellers the greatest profit potential.

    Unit price contracts are illegal in many jurisdictions.

Answer:C

(34) Herzberg identified factors, which, if present, will lead to increased motivation. A typical factor would be:

    Good supervision

    Job security

    Regular promotions

    Good salary

    A dental plan

Answer:C

(35) Your customer ask for a small change in the project, which was not budgeted in the project. It is a small effort as compared to the total project and you need the goodwill for a multimillion dollar on the pipeline. You will

    Refuse to do the work

    Agree to do the work at no charge

    Do the work and bill him later

    Assess the cost and schedule impact and tell them you will decide later

Answer:D

(36) You are responsible for ensuring that your seller's performance meets contractual requirements. For effective contract administration, you should:

    Hold a bidders conference

    Establish the appropriate contract type

    Implement the contract change control system

    Develop a statement of work

Answer:C

(37) The three major causes of change on a project are:

    Replacement of the project manager or key project team members; changes in priorities by senior management; and contractual difficulties.

    Changes in the relative importance of time, resources, or cost ; new knowledge about the deliverable; and technological uncertainty

    Errors in the initial assessment of how to achieve the goal of the project; new information about the project deliverable; and a new mandate

    Unavailability of resources promised by the functional managers; cost overruns; and changes in customer requirements

Answer:C

(38) The purpose of the review of deliverables and project performance at the conclusion of a project phase is to:

    Determine how many resources are required to complete the project according to the project baseline

    Adjust the schedule and cost baselines based on past performance

    Obtain customer acceptance of project deliverables

    Determine whether the project should continue to the next phase

Answer:D

(39) Your project is in the final test stage, the user acceptance test. It meets all the product specs and is under planned costs. In term of schedule, this project is ahead. Your customer meet you and requested that he will not accept the product unless you make several changes. What you should do is:

    Get the list of the changes and estimate all of them. If the total cost is still within the baseline, you just do it

    Estimate the costs and send this to your customer requesting contract modification

    Ask the customer to file a Change request

    Sit with the customer to review the product specs and tell him/her that you have completed the project.

Answer:C

(40) The delphi Method is best suited for:

    Decision-making

    Cost Control

    Overhead rate estimating

    Team discussions

Answer:A

(41) Which of the following methods is least likely to be used for explaining project planning guidelines to the team?

    Project Office Memo

    Project office directive

    Project team meeting

    Formal project report

Answer:D

(42) Projects are initiated in response of:

    Stakeholder's pressure

    Business needs

    Technological obsolescence

    All of the above

Answer:D

(43) The party that needs the change resulting from the project, and who will be its custodian on completion is the:

    Owner

    Sponsor

    Customer

    Client

Answer:A

(44) A document or tool which describes when and how human resources will be brought onto and taken off the project team is called a:

    Staffing Management Plan

    Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM ).

    Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS).

    Resource Assignment Chart

Answer:A

(45) In which type of organization is team building likely to be most difficult?

    Functional

    Projectized

    Matrix

    Project expediter

    Project coordinator

Answer:C

(46) A tool which links the project roles and responsibilities to the project scope definition is called:

    Scope Definition Matrix

    Responsibility Assignment Matrix

    Roles Assignment Matrix

    Project Scope and Roles Matrix

Answer:B

(47) Which of the following are outputs from the Communications Planning process?

    Project records

    Communications management plan

    Performance reports

    Formal acceptance

    b and c

Answer:B

(48) The receiver filters messages based on all but the following:

    Culture

    Semantics

    Language

    Distance

    Knowledge

Answer:D

(49) The sending or conveying of information from one place to another is the process of:

    Networking

    Transmitting

    Encrypting

    Promoting

Answer:B

(50) The three major types of communication are:

    Written, verbal, and non-verbal.

    Verbal, formal documentation, informal documentation.

    Verbal, written, and graphic.

    Verbal, written, and electronic.

Answer:A

(51) All of the following are communication tools EXCEPT:

    Memos

    Verbal circulation of a rumor

    Videos

    Body language

    Inputting data into a spreadsheet

Answer:E

(52) Communication is the PRIME responsibility of a Project:

    Manager in a weak matrix

    Manager in a projectized environment

    Coordinator

    Expeditor

Answer:D

(53) What are the four parts of the communications model?

    Sending, Receiving, Decoding, and Comprehending

    Sender, Message, Medium, Receiver

    Communicator, Message, Receiver, Decoder

    Communicating, Transmitting, Receiving, Comprehending

Answer:B

(54) In negotiating with functional department managers, project managers often find themselves using what two-party conflict management approach?

    Win-Lose

    Win-Win

    Lose-Lose

    None of the above

Answer:C

(55) A leadership style in which the project manager shares problems with team members and formulates solutions as a group is called:

    Autocratic

    Consultation in a group

    Consensus

    One-to-one consultation

Answer:C

(56) A type of organization in which the project manager has little formal authority and basically acts as a staff assistant to an executive who is ultimately responsible for the project is called:

    Functional

    Weak matrix

    Project coordinator

    Project expediter

Answer:D

(57) Create WBS process belongs to:

    Initiation Process Group

    Planning Process Group

    Executing Process Group

    Monitoring & Controlling Process Group

Answer: B

(58) In which of the following organizations is the project manager role likely to be part-time?

    Weak matrix

    Functional

    Balanced matrix

    a and b

    All of the above

Answer:C

(59) Project Risk Management includes all of the following processes except:

    Risk Quantification

    Risk Identification

    Risk Analysis

    Risk Response Development

    Risk Response Control

Answer:E

(60) Using the PMBOK definition of contingency reserve, which of the following statements about contingency reserves is false?

    A contingency reserve is a separately planned quantity used to allow for future situations which may be planned for only in part.

    Contingency reserves may be set aside for known unknowns.

    Contingency reserves may be set aside for unknown unknowns.

    Contingency reserves are normally included in the project's cost and schedule baselines.

Answer:C

(61) Which of the following is true about pure risk?

    The risk can be deflected or transferred to another party through a contract or insurance policy.

    Pure risks involve the chance of both a profit and a loss.

    No opportunities are associated with pure risk, only losses.

    a and c

    a and b

Answer:D

(62) A contingency plan is:

    A planned response that defines the steps to be taken if an identified risk event should occur.

    A workaround

    A reserve used to allow for future situations which may be planned for only in part.

    a and c

    a and b

Answer:A

(63) Deflection or transfer of a risk to another party is part of which of the following risk response categories?

    Mitigation

    Acceptance

    Avoidance

    Analysis

Answer:A

(64) Management reserves are used to handle which type of risk?

    Unknown unknowns

    Known unknowns

    business risks

    pure risks

Answer:A

(65) Which of the following is considered during the Procurement Planning Process?

    Whether to procure

    How to procure and how much to procure

    What and when to procure

    b and c

    all of the above

Answer:E

(66) From a buyer's standpoint, which of the following is true?

    Procurement planning should include consideration of potential subcontracts

    Procurement planning does not include consideration of potential subcontracts since this is the duty of the contractor.

    Subcontractors are first considered during the Solicitation Process

    none of the above

Answer:A

(67) Which of the following is true about procurement documents?

    Procurement documents are used to solicit proposals from prospective sellers.

    Invitation for Bid and Request for Proposal are two examples of procurement documents.

    Procurement documents should be structured to facilitate accurate and complete responses from prospective sellers.

    b and c

    all of the above

Answer:E

(68) Which of the following is a method for quantifying qualitative data in order to minimize the effect of personal prejudice on source selection?

    Weighting system

    Screening system

    Selecting system

    none of the above

    all of the above

Answer:A

(69) Which of the following are examples of indirect costs?

    Salaries of corporate executives

    Salaries of full-time project staff

    Overhead costs

    a and b

    a and c

Answer:E

(70) Which of the following contract types places the greatest risk on the seller?

    Cost-plus-fixed-fee contract

    Cost plus-incentive-fee contract

    Fixed-price-incentive contract

    Firm-fixed-price contract

Answer:D

(71) In which of the following contract types is the seller's profit limited?

    Cost-plus-percentage-cost contract

    Cost-plus-fixed-fee contract

    Fixed-price-plus-incentive

    b and c

    none of the above

Answer:D

(72) A cost-plus-percentage-cost (CPPC. contract has an estimated cost of $120,000 with an agreed profit of 10% of the costs. The actual cost of the project is $130,000. What is the total reimbursement to the seller?

    $143,000

    $142,000

    $140,000

    $132,000

Answer:A

(73) A fixed-price-plus-incentive-fee (FPI. contract has a target cost of $130,000, a target profit of $15,000, a target price of $145,000, a ceiling price of $160,000, and a share ratio of 80/20. The actual cost of the project was $150,000. How much profit does the seller make?

    $10,000

    $15,000

    $0

    $5,000

Answer:A

(74) Under what circumstances is it better for a contractor to subcontract?

    The subcontractor possesses special technical and engineering skills that the contractor does not have.

    The work to be subcontracted represents almost all of the overall work effort.

    The subcontractor can perform the work at a lower cost than the contractor.

    all the above

    a and c

Answer:E

(75) Which type of bilateral contract is used for high dollar, standard items?

    Purchase order

    Request for proposal (RFP.

    Invitation for bid (IFB.

    Request for quotation (RFQ.

    all of them are appropriate

Answer:C

(76) In which stage of the negotiation meeting are points of concession identified?

    Probing

    Closure

    Agreement

    Scratch bargaining

Answer:D

(77) Which of the following is NOT a method of government procurement?

    Assistance

    Sealed Bidding

    Competitive proposals

    Acquisition

    Small purchases

    No answer provided

Answer:D

(78) The "rule of seven" as applied to process control charts means that :

    If there are seven points on one side of mean, then an assignable cause must be found.

    Seven consecutive points are ascending, descending, or the same.

    At least seven inspectors should be in place for every thousand employees

    A process is not out of control even though seven measurements fall outside the lower and upper control limits.

Answer:A

(79) There is project with CPI of 0.81 and TCPI=1.00001 this project is:

    Overbudget and cannot recover

    Underbudget

    Overbudget and early in its evolution

    No interference cam be made

Answer:D

(80) A collection of generally sequential project phases whose name and number are determined by the control needs of the organization or organizations involved in the project, is called:

    Project life cycle

    Product life cycle

    Project life event

    All of the above

Answer: A

(81) What does RDU stand for?

    Really Dumb User

    Ready for Download Use

    Remaining Duration unassisted

    Remaining Duration

Answer: D

(82) Who is responsible for risk identification, risk quantification, risk response development, risk Monitor and Control?

    Project Communications Management

    Project human resource Management

    Project Procurement Management

    Project Risk Management

Answer: D

(83) Three Point Statistical Estimating Formula Group. Expected Value =

    (Optimistic + (4 X Most Likely) + Pessimistic ) x 6

    (Optimistic + (4 X Most Likely) + Pessimistic ) divided by 6

    (Optimistic + (4 X Most Likely) x Pessimistic ) divided by 6

    (Optimistic + (4 + Most Likely) + Pessimistic ) divided by 6

Answer: B

(84) Two Point Delphi Estimate, The Best and Worst Case effort calculation:

    Calculate (Best + Worst) / 2

    Calculate (Best +2 ) / Worst

    Calculate (2 + Worst) / Best

    none of the above

Answer: A

(85) What does TQM stand for?

    Time Quality Managed

    Target Quality Management

    Total Quality Management

    Time Quote Management

ANSWER: C

(86) Examples of Projects include:

    Implementing a new business procedure or process

    Constructing a building or facility

    Designing a new transportation vehicle

    All of the Above

ANSWER: D

(87) Projects are undertaken at all levels of the organization?

    True

    False

    Both True and False

    Neither true nor false

ANSWER: A

(88) 7. ________ means that every project has a definite beginning and a definite end.

    Overall

    Project Chart

    Temporary

    Duration

ANSWER: C

(89) The smallest unit of time used in scheduling the project is known as:

    Calendar Unit

    Scope unit

    Time Measurement

    All of the Above

ANSWER: A

(90) Who should be involved in the project planning phase?

    The Project Manager.

    The customer.

    The Sub-contractors/vendors.

    The project team members.

    All of the above.

Answer: E

(91) The successful project managers spend most of their time:

    Planning with their personnel.

    Planning with top management.

    Talking with personnel.

    Studying project results.

Answer: C

(92) Cost Plus Percentage of Cost (CPPC) contracts provide:

    A reimbursement of allowable cost of services performed plus an agreed upon percentage of the estimated cost as profit.

    A reimbursement of allowable costs plus a fixed fee which is paid proportionately as the contract progresses.

    The supplier with a fixed price for a delivered performance plus a predetermined fee for superior performance.

    None of the above.

Answer: A

(93) Project success depends on a no. of interrelated factors, including time, cost and scope control. The success of any project depends primarily on:

    Customer acceptance.

    Customer satisfaction.

    Customer compromise in defining its needs.

    Exceeding customer requirements through gold plating.

Answer: B

(94) Which of the following is the most efficient means of product quality inspection:

    Acceptance sampling.

    100% inspection.

    Variable lot inspection.

    A and C.

Answer: A

(95) Constructive Team Role includes :

    Investigates, clarifier and closer.

    Compromise, blocker and closer.

    Initiate, encourage and gate keeper.

    Investigates, recognize and summary.

Answer: C

(96) Pareto Analysis, cause and effect diagrams and flow charts are used in quality.

    Control.

    Assurances.

    Planning.

    Verification.

Answer: A

(97) In a multi-cultural environment, it is critical to establish a corporate culture that facilitates:

    Problem-solving through different approaches.

    Learning and communication.

    Partnerships, strong alliances and joint ventures.

    Negotiations.

Answer: B

(98) A condition which will lead an organization towards conflict is:

    Conflict of interest.

    Differentiation in organization

    Resolved prior conflicts.

    Both A and B.

    All of the above.

Answer: D

(99) The contemporary view of conflict is that:

    Conflict is bad.

    Conflict is caused by trouble makers.

    Conflict should be avoided.

    Conflict is often beneficial.

    A, B and C.

Answer: D

(100) In general a project charter covers:

    Project justification, background, scope, objectives, available resources, organizational responsibilities, a project schedule, estimates, procurement schedule, and any imitations that top management wants to apply.

    Project justification, background, scope, objectives, available resources, organizational responsibilities, detailed project schedules, estimates, and detailed procurement schedules responsibilities, a project schedule, and any limitations that top management wants to apply.

    Project justification, background, scope, objectives, available resources, organizational apply.

    Project scope, objectives, available resources, responsibilities, a project schedule, estimates, procurement schedules, and any limitations that top management wants to apply.

Answer: D

(101) A project manager has increased project costs by US $75,000, but completed the project six weeks earlier than planned. What tool is best described here?

    Resource leveling

    Duration compression

    Crashing

    Fast tracking

Answer: C

(102) Which of the following is most true?

    Lag is the maximum amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying the early start of its successor.

    Lag may be determined by making a forward pass.

    Lag is waiting time.

    Lag is the maximum amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying the project.

Answer: C

(103) As project manager you should dedicate a primary focus to:

    Managing changes immediately as they surface.

    Formally documenting all changes.

    Communicating authorized changes to senior management and key stakeholders.

    Preventing unnecessary changes.

Answer: D

(104) The behavioral responsibilities of a project manager may also include dealing with:

    Regulatory Personnel

    The legal environment

    Environmental Issues

    All of the above

Answer: D

(105) The major purpose of project status reports is to:

    Organize and summarize the information so that all stakeholders were informed

    Inform upper management of the project problems

    Inform the client about the changes that have completed

    Provide information to management and client

Answer: A

(106) Most project management leadership theories focus on all of the following except :

    Personal characteristics of the project manager

    Personal traits of the subordinates

    Behavioral styles of the project manager

    Usefulness of authority and power and leadership

Answer: B

(107) Preliminary Cost estimates are developed during the______ phase of the project:

    Conceptual

    Planning

    Implementation

    Execution

Answer: A

(108) Historical records during close-out are useful to __________ and ____________ for future projects:

    Predict trends, highlight problems.

    Analyze successes, shortfalls

    Analyze strengths, document results

    Justify results, set standards

Answer: A

(109) Your client informs that his company has a problem with the current design specs of your product and how it will interface with the existing systems. If this occurs, it could be a major problem for your project. The client is coming to your office in one week to discuss the problem and to see what your team can do to overcome this setback. All previous meetings were informal with this client, but now he wants a formal meeting. What should you do to prepare for this meeting

    Update the schedules and assume an active role since the client has not given you the specifics of the potential problem

    Make sure that the team has increased productivity so the client can see how efficient your team is performing

    Assemble the team and ask them to prepare an agenda for topics to discuss

    Make sure that each team member has his assignment in preparation for any handouts and needed plans

Answer: C

(110) The definitive terms of a contract are written during which of the following contract phases?

    Contract phase

    Post award phase

    Award phase

    Pre award phase

    Requirement phase

Answer: C

(111) A document that formally recognizes the existence of a project is a :

    Gantt Chart

    WBS

    Project Charter

    Scope statement

Answer: C

(112) Some organizations are now using 6 Sigma for quality control compared to the usual:

    2 sigma

    3 sigma

    4 sigma

    5 sigma

Answer: B

(113) Reducing the impact of a risk event by reducing the possibility of its occurrence is:

    Risk avoidance

    Risk acceptance

    Risk mitigation

    Contingency planning

Answer: A

(114) In which of the following project management process groups are the most time and money typically spent?

    Initiating

    Planning

    Executing

    Controlling

Answer: C

(115) ______ recognizes that a project or phase should begin and commits the organization to do so:

    Initiation Process

    Solicitation Process

    Scoping Process

    Planning process

Answer: A

(116) A supplier has withdrawn from your project. A new supplier has been retained. His labor forces are due to arrive at the job site tomorrow. You should :

    Meet with the supplier and his forces and establish yourself as the authority in charge.

    Bring your team in for introductions and establish a communications exchange

    Bring out the communication management plan

    Bring out the project plan.

Answer: A

(117) A new project manager is about to begin creating the project's scope of work. One stakeholder wants to add many items to the scope of work. Another stakeholder only wants to describe the functional requirements. The project is important for the project manager's company but a seller will do the work. Which of the following would you advise the project manager to do?

    The scope of work should be general to allow the seller to make its own decisions.

    The scope of work should be general to allow clarification later.

    The scope of work should be detailed to allow clarifications later.

    The scope of work should be as detailed as necessary for the type of project.

Answer: D

(118) After the kickoff meeting, two team members engage in a casual conversation about the project objectives and deliverables. It is clear they heard different messages during the meeting. One member is so adamant that the other member gives up arguing the point. After talking to the project manager, the second member confirms that the first member is mistaken. At this point, what is the BEST course of action?

    The second team member should send the other team member an e-mail describing what he discovered.

    At the next project meeting, the team member should ask the mistaken team member to describe his interpretation so the project manager can get everyone on the same page.

    The project manager should send out an e-mail to the team restating the project objectives and deliverables.

    At the next project meeting, the project manager should spend time reviewing a documented scope statement with the goal of identifying this and other false assumptions.

Answer: D

(119) During project execution, a project team delivers a project deliverable to the customer. However, the customer neither acknowledges the deliverable nor says if it is acceptable, although an approval is required. What is the BEST thing to do?

    Continue with the project

    Document the situation

    Contact management for help

    Call a meeting of the team

Answer: C

(120) You are managing a six months project and have held bi-weekly meetings with your project sponsors. After five-and-a-half months of work, the project is on schedule and budget, but the sponsors are not satisfied with the deliverables. This situation will delay the project completion by one month. The MOST important process that could have prevented this situation is:

    Risk monitoring and control.

    Schedule control.

    Scope planning.

    Scope change control.

Answer: C

(121) When you are closing out a project, what must you do?

    Perform project feedback on the team

    Obtain sign off from the customer

    Review project documentation for completeness

    Update the project plans

Answer: B

(122) Financial controls that need to be considered for project plan development do not include:

    Time reporting

    Standard contract provisions

    Process audits

    Accounting codes

Answer: C

(123) A project manager has been working on a project for six months with the same team yet the team still shows a lack of support for the project. The best thing for the project manager to do would be to?

    Re-evaluate the effectiveness of the reward system the project manager has put in place

    talk to each team member's boss

    Re-plan the project

    Tell the team he needs its support

Answer: A

(124) A project has several teams. Team C has repeatedly missed several deadlines in the past causing Team D to have to crash the critical path several times. As the project leader for Team D, what should you do?

    Meet with management alone

    Meet with the project manager alone

    Meet with the project manager and management

    Meet with the project manager and the team C leader

Answer: D

(125) The current update to the schedule performance report shows no schedule variance. Based upon the reporting, you have told the client that the project is on time. However, your team members know that a major milestone has just been missed and that the project will not meet its startup date. This is an indication of poor?

    Communication management planning

    Scope management planning

    Team trust

    Schedule planning

Answer: A

(126) A project manager is assigned a project with a team that has already been selected. The first thing the project manager should find out about the team is?

    What is each team member's favorite color

    Each team member's objectives for working on the project

    A list of each team member's tasks

    Each team member's role in the project plan

Answer: D

(127) An advisor to a new project manager tells the project manager to create lessons learned at the end of a project. A lessons learned includes?

    Any variances and the causes of the variances

    Reports from the customer

    Reports from management

    A list of all the plans

Answer: A

(128) A project management professional can compare earned value performance data to all of the following project management tools EXCEPT:

    Critical path analysis

    Technical performance metrics

    Risk mitigation plans

    Forecasted final costs and schedule estimates

Answer: D

(129) The project is completed and the final deliverable given to the customer but the customer refuses to take any action to give final acceptance on the project. The project manager should?

    Repeatedly ask for final acceptance

    Ask the team for assistance

    Document the situation

    Do nothing because there is nothing that can be done

Answer: C

(130) Your new product development project has resulted in a highly successful new product. The property, equipment, materials, and personnel of your project are now being integrated into the functional organization. Your project is being terminated by:

    Extinction

    Addition

    Integration

    Starvation

Answer: C

(131) The Precedence Diagramming Method :

    has finish-to-start task relationships and provides the flexibility of lead and lag time to the activities;

    has the activity on the node;

Answer: A

(132) Gantt charts are great for:

    Showing tasks relationships

    Tracking actual vs planned

    Good communications with customer, management and project teams

    b and c

Answer: D

(133) Ultimate responsibility for quality management in the project rests with the?

    Project engineer

    Purchasing agent

    Quality manager

    Team members

Answer: D

(134) Design of experiments?

    identifies which variables have the most influence on a quality outcome

    identifies which variables have the least influence on a quality outcome

    determines what a quality outcome is

    is a method for research and development

Answer: A

(135) You are a project manager for a major information systems project. Someone from the quality department comes to see you about beginning a quality audit of your project. The team, already under pressure to complete the project as soon as possible, takes objection to the audit. You should explain to the team that the purpose of a quality audit is?

    part of an ISO 9000 investigation

    to check if the customer is following its quality process

    to identify lessons learned that can improve performance on the project

    to check the accuracy of the costs submitted by the team

Answer: C

(136) You manage a project whose team members have diverse skills and expertise. You want to encourage your staff to pool its knowledge on project issues to make the best decisions possible. The most appropriate management style to use is:

    Laissez-faire

    Democratic

    Autocratic

    Directive

Answer: A

(137) The types of power that have substantial influence on both subordinates and upper management are:

    Formal & expert

    Reward & penalty

    Expert & referent

    Formal & referent

Answer: C

(138) Your preferred resource is not available at the time needed. What is the best thing to do?

    Negotiate with management to get the resource

    Assess your alternatives

    Begin the task early

    Use reserves to increase resources assigned to those tasks.

Answer:B

(139) An important piece of hardware will be late. What is the first thing to do?

    Discuss with team

    Use schedule reserves

    Use alternate vendor

    Go to customer or management

Answer: A

(140) A project has experienced significant delays due to equipment problems, staff attrition, and slow client reviews. The project is 40% complete and has used 60% of the available calendar time. What is the FIRST thing you should do?

    Re-baseline the schedule to reflect the new date

    Analyze the critical path activities for potential to fast track or crash the schedule

    Document the lack of progress and associated issues to management

    Identify tasks that have required more time than planned

Answer: D

(141) A functional manager wants to make a change to the time associated with a task, but there is not enough reserve to accommodate the change. Who should authorize the change?

    Senior management

    The functional manager

    The project manager

    The team member performing the work

Answer: C

(142) During the course of a project you have motivated team members, managed conflict, performed personnel administrative functions and negotiated for more resources. These are examples of:

    General Project Management

    Project Human Resource Management

    Project Execution

    A Projectized organization

Answer:A

(143) You have been promoted to Manager, Continuous Process Improvement. Your new position:

    Is a project because the work will be performed by people

    Is not a project because Continuous Process Improvement will continue indefinitely

    Is a project because it is constrained by limited resources

    Is a project because improvements must be planned, executed, and controlled

Answer:B

(144) Which of the following is not a Project Management knowledge area?

    Project Quality Management

    Project Procurement Management

    Project Configuration Management

    Project Risk Management

Answer: C

(145) The state of being totally answerable for the satisfactory completion of a specific assignment is called:

    Authority

    Accountability

    Responsibility

    Fiduciary

Answer:B

(146) You are responsible for the communication controls for the Genesis series of satellites. Your current assignment is:

    Project management

    Functional management

    Facility management

    Program management

Answer:D

(147) Work packages are used to :

    Represent units of work at a level where work is performed.

    Distinguish one package from all others assigned to a single functional group.

    Limit work to be performed to relatively short periods of time.

    All of the above.

Answer: D

(148) Network planning methods(PERT/CPM/PDM):

    Are usually too complicated for practical use on most projects

    Require highly trained specialists for effective use

    Always require computer support to be practical

    Are based on flow charts and they allow observation of what happens to the project schedule when changes occur to a task's start and stop dates

Answer: D

(149) Earned value can be described as:

    The value of the equipment that has been installed as of the current date

    The sum of the labor costs that have been incurred on the project date

    A method of measuring project performance

    A method of measuring the amount of money that has been spent to date

Answer: C

(150) A role of the change control board is to:

    issue change requests

    represent top management interests in initiating innovation

    review the impact of change requests on project costs, schedule, and specifications

    schedule changes into PERT networks

    identify new areas of project work

Answer: C

(151) Quality control is:

    identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them

    monitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance

    evaluating overall project performance on a regular basis to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards

    taking action to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the project so as to provide added benefits to both the performing organization and the project customer

    assuming the production of goods that meet the highest standards of luxury

Answer: B

(152) Cost of quality is a concept that includes:

    the cost necessary for ensuring conformance to requirements

    the life cycle cost of the project

    all research and development costs related to the project

    only the cost of the quality control function

    A and B

Answer: A

(153) The pillars) of quality is (are) :

    Quality is free

    Doing it right the first time

    Zero defects

    Process improvement

    B and C

Answer: E

(154) Quality assurance is:

    top management's intention regarding quality

    functions determining implementation of the quality policy

    actions to provide confidence of satisfying quality requirements

    responsibilities and processes which implement quality management

    all of the above

Answer: C

(155) The zero defects concept:

    is a performance standard for management

    is a motivational technique that promotes "doing it right the first time"

    is used by management to communicate to all employees that everyone should do things right the first time

    A and C

    B and C

Answer: D

(156) When appointed, a project manager has the inherent forms of legitimate power conveyed to him. The three forms of legitimate power are:

    absolute, direct, and indict

    direction, coordination, and liaison

    formal, informal, and persuasive

    formal, reward, and direct

    formal, reward, and penalty

Answer: E

(157) The five types of conflict resolution are listed below and represent, in general order of importance, the methods a project manager should use to manage conflict. The one used most often by project managers to resolve conflict is:

    confrontation

    compromise

    smoothing

    forcing

    withdrawal

Answer: A

(158) The process of getting a group of diverse individuals to work effectively together as a team is the definition of

    leadership

    project management

    the project manager's responsibilities

    implementation

    team building

Answer: E

(159) Which contract type should be used by the owner on a high risk project?

    Cost plus percentage of cost

    Cost plus incentive fee

    Lump sum

    Fixed price plus incentive fee

    C and D

Answer: C

(160) PMI suggests which of the following behaviors as part of contract negotiations?

    Probing, scratching, and small bites

    Sniffing and smelling (olfactory)

    Touching and caressing (tactile)

    Mind-reading and extra-sensory perception

    None of the above

Answer: A

(161) Project risk is characterized by three factors:

    Severity of impact, duration of impact and cost of impact

    Identification, type of risk category and probability of impact

    Risk event, risk probability and the amount at stake

    Occurrence, frequency and cost

Answer: C

(162) Name the ethical code you'll be required to adhere to as a PMP:

    Project Management Policy of Ethics

    Project Management Professional Standards

    Project Management Code of Professional Ethics & Standards

    Project Management Professional Code of Professional Conduct

Answer: D

(163) Which is not another term for contract?

    Agreement

    Purchase Order

    Proposal

    Memorandum of Understanding

Answer: C

(164) Which of the following situations describes a violation of the PMP. Professional Code of Conduct?

    Accepting a gift that is within the customary guidelines of the country or province you are currently working in.

    Use of confidential information to advance your position or influence a critical decision.

    Complying with laws and regulations of the state or province in which project management services are provided

    Disclosing information to a customer about a situation that may have an appearance of impropriety.

Answer: B

(165) You are working in a country where it is customary to exchange gifts between contractor and customer. Your company code of conduct clearly states that you cannot accept gifts from any client. Failure to accept the gift from this client may result in termination of the contract. The action to take in this case would be:

    Provide the customer with a copy of your company code of conduct and refuse the gifts.

    Exchange gifts with the customer and keep the exchange confidential

    Contact your project sponsor and /or your legal office for assistance.

    Ask the project sponsor or project executive to exchange gifts.

Answer: C

(166) An example of a conflict of interest would be:

    As a public official you make a decision about a contract award that will benefit you personally

    You and a functional manager disagree with a task cost estimate

    Your sponsor decides to cancel your project because it no longer supports the company strategy

    Your personality conflicts with that of a key member of your project team.

Answer: A

(167) Your project is running out of cash and significant work remains. You are directed by senior management to instruct your people to use another project's charge numbers while working on your project. You should:

    Follow instructions

    Inform the corporate auditors

    Understand the background of management's instructions before taking any action

    Try to close down the project

Answer: C

(168) Project Managers can contribute to their organization's knowledge base and to the profession of project management most effectively by:

    Developing and implementing a project review and lessons learned process

    Establishing strict guidelines for protecting intellectual property

    Promote the use of ad hoc project management

    Ensuring that all project plans are developed before the project team is formed

Answer: A

(169) For a festival, you give your government client a leather brief case. You are in violation of the responsibility to:

    Comply with the law.

    Comply with regulations.

    Provide accurate information.

    Protect conflict of interest.

Answer: B

(170) You have just changed jobs and discovered that your new employer routinely violates OSHA/EPA and affirmative action requirements on projects. You should:

    Do nothing; it's not your problem

    Start by asking management if they are aware that regulations are being violated

    Talk to the corporate legal department

    Inform the appropriate government agencies about the violations

Answer: B

(171) During your assignment as project manager you add a new member to your project team. This new team member was recently hired from a competitor and offers to share a substantial amount of proprietary information from his previous company. This information could put you and your team in a very strong position for future business. You are aware of a non-compete clause in the new hire's condition of employment. You should:

    Accept the information and agree to keep it confidential between you and the new hire.

    Review the condition of employment with the new hire and advise her to reconsider the offer.

    Review the information and only accept only what may have a direct impact on the project's financial status.

    Ignore the offer to share and move forward with the project

Answer: B

(172) Before reporting a perceived violation of an established rule or policy the project manager should:

    Determine the risks associated with the violation

    Ensure there is a reasonably clear and factual basis for reporting the violation

    Ignore the violation until it actually affects the project results

    Convene a committee to review the violation and determine the appropriate response

Answer: B

(173) A response to a negative risk event is known as a:

    Work Item

    Work Package

    Workaround

    Work breakdown structure

Answer: C

(174) Qualitative Risk Analysis will be performed under :

    Initiation Process Group

    Planning Process Group

    Executing Process Group

    Monitoring & Controlling Process Group

Answer: B

(175) Acquire Project team process will be performed under:

    Initiation Process Group

    Planning Process Group

    Executing Process Group

    Monitoring & Controlling Process Group

Answer: C

(176) The terms "Facilitating Processes" and "Core Processes" are no longer used in new PMBOK. These terms have been eliminated to ensure that all project management processes in the Project Management Process Groups have the same level of importance.

    True

    False

Answer: A

(177) In a group of 4 members, 1 member has been added. How many communication channels are there now :

    5

    3

    10

    20

Answer: C

(178) Which statement is correct :

    There are some core processes and some facilitating processes.

    PMI is not any more responsible form PMBOK.

    PMBOK will be changed every year in December.

    New PMBOK has 9 process groups and 42 processes.

Answer: D

(179) Which of the following is not an input to Develop Project Charter:

    Contract

    Project Statement of Work

    Enterprise Environmental Factors

    Organizational Process Assets

    Project Management Information System

Answer: E

(180) Which of the following is a tool used to Create WBS:

    Organizational Process Assets

    Work Breakdown Structure Templates

    WBS Dictionary

    Configuration Management System

Answer: B

(181) Which of the following is not an input to Activity Definition process:

    WBS Dictionary

    Organizational Process Assets

    Project Scope Statement

    Work Breakdown Structure

    Schedule Network Templates

Answer: E

(182 ) Which of the following is not an output of Activity Resource Estimating:

    Activity Resource Requirements

    Resource Breakdown Structure

    Requested Changes

    Resource Management Plan

Answer: D

(183) Which of the following is a tool used in Activity Duration Estimating:

    Analogous Estimating

    Work Breakdown Structure Templates

    Critical Path Method

    Schedule Network Templates

Answer: A

(184) Crashing, and Fast tracking are techniques used in the following process:

    Schedule Development

    Activity Definition

    Create WBS

    Resource Allocation

Answer: A

(185) Which is not a technique used for cost estimation :

    Analogous Estimating

    Bottom-up Estimating

    Parametric Estimating

    Vendor Bid Analysis

    Resource Leveling

Answer: E

(186) Which is not a tool used in Quality Planning process :

    Cost-Benefit Analysis

    Benchmarking

    Design of Experiments

    Cost of Quality (COQ)

    Process Analysis

Answer: E

(187) What are three tools used in Quality Control Process:

    Benchmarking, Cost of Quality (COQ) and Cause and Effect Diagram

    Cost of Quality (COQ), Cause and Effect Diagram and Control Charts

    Control Charts, Flowcharting and Process Analysis

    Pareto Chart, Control Charts and Cause and Effect Diagram

Answer: D

(188) Which of the following Human Resource process generates Roles & Responsibilities :

    Human Resource Planning

    Acquire Project Team

    Develop Project Team

    Manage Project Team

Answer: A

(189) Co-Location is a techniques which means:

    Placing many or all of the most active project team members in the same physical location to enhance their ability to perform as a team.

    Placing many or all of the most active project team members in the same physical location to reduce the cost of the project

    Performing a complete project at a single location

    Performing a project at various locations.

Answer: B

(190) Manage Stakeholders is a part which of the following process group:

    Human Resource Management

    Project Time Management

    Project Cost Management

    Project Communications Management

    Project Risk Management

Answer: D

(191) Which is not correct about Communications Management Plan document:

    It contains Stakeholder communication requirements

    It contains Person responsible for communicating the information

    It contains Frequency of the communication, such as weekly

    It contains Methods or technologies used to convey the information, such as memoranda, e-mail, and/or press releases

    It contains total cost required for performing communication.

Answer: E

(192) Which is not a tool used for Risk Response Planning:

    Risk Audits

    Avoidance

    Transfer

    Mitigate

    Exploit

Answer: A

(193) Advertising is a technique used in which of the following process:

    Select Sellers

    Request Seller Responses

    Contract Administration

    Contract Closure

Answer: B

(194) Which of the following definition is not correct:

    Human Resource Planning - Identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships, as well as creating the staffing management plan.

    Acquire Project Team - Obtaining the human resources needed to complete the project

    Develop Project Team - Improving the competencies and interaction of team members to enhance project performance

    Manage Project Team - Tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and coordinating changes to enhance project performance.

    Team Building - Forming a team from scratch for a new project.

Answer: E

(195) Which of the following definition is not correct:

    Contract Closure - completing and settling each contract, including the resolution of any open items, and closing each contract.

    Plan Purchases and Acquisitions - selecting a buyer to purchase any product or service.

    Select Sellers - reviewing offers, choosing from among potential sellers, and negotiating a written contract with a seller.

    Request Seller Responses - obtaining information, quotations, bids, offers, or proposals, as appropriate

    Plan Contracting - documenting products, services, and results requirements and identifying potential sellers

Answer: B

(196) Which of the following is not correct:

    PMO - Program Management Office

    RBS - Resource Breakdown Structure

    RAM - Resource Assignment Matrix

    RFP - Request for Proposal

    TQM - Total Quality Management

Answer: C

(197) Which of the following is not correct :

    Cost of Quality (COQ): Determining the costs incurred to ensure quality

    Crashing: A specific type of project schedule compression technique performed by taking action to decrease the total project schedule duration.

    Total Quality Management: A common approach to implementing a quality improvement program within an organization

    Risk Register: The risk register details all identified risks, including description, category, cause, probability of occurring, impact(s) on objectives, proposed responses, owners, and current status.

    Simulation: prototyping of a project to check if proposed design will work or not.

Answer: E

(198) Most schedule simulations are based on some form of which of the following?

    Delphi

    PERT

    CPM

    Monte Carlo Analysis

Answer: D

(199) What is critical path?

    The shortest path through the network, which represents the longest amount of time in which a project can be completed.

    The path with zero float.

    The longest path through the network, which represents the shortest amount of time in which a project can be completed.

    The path with the most activities with the longest durations.

    b and c

Answer: C

(200) In the communication process, "noise" is the word used to describe factors and forces inhibiting the exchange of information between two or more parties. Noise includes all of the following but __________

    Culture

    Behavior

    Language

    Traditional way of doing things

    Loud talking

Answer: E



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